SCIENCE WORKS SCIENCE WORKS   :

H.O.Khoshdurdyev
Candidate of Chemical Sciences

"The Nature is simple and not luxuriates
by the excessive reasons of things"
I.Newton
"The most simple explanation-the most true"
" Ockham's razor "

ABOUT THE REASON OF THE SOLAR ACTIVITY
Introduction

The heating of the Sun and some planets of the Solar system which have own satellites, occurs thanks to the transformation of mechanical energy of planets and their satellites to a heat. At body movement on the curvilinear closed trajectory the decrease of its speed is going on and the reduction of its kinetic energy accordingly. As the lowered kinetic energy cannot disappear it is considered that it is transformed into a heat. The reason of movement of the planets of the Solar system and natural planet satellites with constant speeds is the Sun rotation on its axis which by means of "a gravitational friction" provides the circulation and rotation of planets of the Solar system, and the latter similarly circulate and rotate their satellites.

The period of the Sun greatest activity which fluctuates between 9 and 12.6 years, is basically connected with a periodic being of Jupiter, the most massive planet, in aphelion (the farthest distance of planet's orbit to the Sun) in each 11.86 years with the greatest delay of its orbital speed in this point. This speed is varied from V1=13720 m/s nearby perihelion (the nearest distance of planet's orbit to the Sun) to V2 =12440 m/s nearby aphelion. At decreasing of their speeds and accordingly reduction of their kinetic energy and in connection with impossibility of its disappearance it is considered that it is transformed to a heat.

Neutrino on the Sun is insufficient in 4 times for D+T=He+n reaction that forces to doubt the generation of the above-stated nuclear reaction in it, while the presence of hydrogen and helium in the celestial bodies composition is not sufficient for thermonuclear fusion in them.

The short analysis of the existing points of view on the Solar activity

What is the source of the Solar energy? What is the nature of processes in the course of which the large quantity of energy is generated? How long will the Sun shine yet?

"The first attempts to answer to these questions had been made by the astronomers in the middle of ХIX century, after the physicists formulation of the Law of conservation of energy.

Robert Mayer has assumed, that the Sun shines at the expense of constant bombardment of a surface by meteorites and meteoric particles. This hypothesis had been rejected, as a simple calculation reveals, that for the maintenance of the Sun luminosity at modern level, it is necessary 2x1015 kg of meteoric substance is to bedropped outon itsecondly. It will make 6x1022 kg for a year, and during the Sun existence, that is for 5 billion years - 3x1032 kg.The Sun Weight M = 2?1030 kg, therefore for five billion years the substances should bedropped out on the Sun in 150 times more than the Sun weight.

The second hypothesis had been stated by Helmholtz and Kelvin also in the middle of ХIX century. They have assumed, that the Solar radiation occurs at the expense of compression to 60-70 meters annually. The compression reason - a mutual attraction of the Sun particles and just for this reason the given hypothesis had been named as contraction. If to make the calculation on the given hypothesis the Sun age will be no more than 20 million years that contradicts the modern data received under the analysis of radioactive disintegration of elements in the geological samples of a terrestrial ground and a ground of the Moon.

The third hypothesis about possible energy sources of the Sun was stated by James Jeans at the beginning of XX-th century. He supposed, that in the Sun bowels there are heavy radioactive elements which spontaneously break up and generate the energy. For example, the uranium transformation into thorium and then into lead, is accompanied by energy allocation. The subsequent analysis of this hypothesis also had shown its inconsistency; the star consisting only of uranium, would not allocate enough energy for maintenance of the observable Sun luminosity. Besides, there are stars the luminosity of which is in many times surpassing the luminosity of our star. It is improbable, that in those stars the stocks of radioactive substance will be also much.

The hypothesis of the elements synthesis as a result of nuclear reactions in the stars bowels has appeared as the most probable hypothesis.

In 1935 Hans Bette has put forward a hypothesis, that the thermonuclear reaction of the hydrogen transformation into helium can be the Solar energy source. Just for this Hans Bette received the Nobel Prize in 1967.

The direct check of this hypothesis is the Solar neutrino observations. The neutrino of the high energies (boric) are registered in chlorine-argon experiments (Davis experiments) and steadily show a lack of neutrino in comparison with the theoretical value for the Sun standard model which provides D+T=He+n reaction
[1] and in this connection the physics of the Sun on this problem is in the difficult situation now [2].
Besides, this suggested model has a number of lacks.

1. It is known, that for nuclear fusion of hydrogen D and T it is necessary to approach each other on distance r, equal r~3x10-15 m. [3]. For this purpose it is necessary to execute the work equal to the electrostatic potential energy of repulsing E ~ 0,1 MeV. The nucleic an break such barrier if at impact their average kinetic energy 3/2kTwill equal 0,1 MeV. It is possible at Т=2x109 K that is a temperature in 2 billion degrees [3, Coulomb barrier], and it is only the temperature of "set fire" and further it should increase. But there are not such temperatures on the Sun.

2. In the thermonuclear processes, artificially carried out in terrestrial conditions, first, all nuclear or thermonuclear fuel, which is in local volume, is involved in reaction, secondly, being of fast origin it has a very short duration - part per million of a second. By this analogy it follows that how much hydrogen would be there on the Sun, it should fully enter helium synthesis, the process should be once-only and consequently quickly to end, however the Sun activity totals giga years.

3. The phenomenon named "11-year Sun activity" is observed on the Sun, which means that in each 11 year (actually this figure fluctuates between 9 and 12,6 years) there is a periodic change of the Sun activity and thus temperature of its centre fluctuates approximately from 13,5 [3] to 21 million degrees K [4] and this phenomenon has a constant character. The existing thermonuclear hypothesis is absolutely powerless in this phenomenon explanation.

4. The uniform temperature distribution in the process volume is characteristic of the thermonuclear reaction, however in the centre of the Sun the temperature makes 13,5-21 million degrees, on the Solar corona - 1,5 million degrees, and on an external surface - only 5 500-6 000 degrees [3]. This situation also is not in favour of the thermonuclear model of the Sun.

For "substantiation" of the thermonuclear model of the Sun a number of efforts has been made the essence of which consists in attempt to lower the Coulomb barrier of this process firing - they are the so-called "Tunnel effect" and "Muonic catalysis" [4], however these arguments are also insufficiently proved.

Let's simply address to the fact of the thermonuclear process realization on the Earth.
The thermonuclear fuel D+T "is fired", in particular by uranium or plutonium charge - at first in a thermonuclear bomb the nuclear explosion is created and "… as a result of large energy release in the centre of a nuclear bomb the temperature rises to 108К, i.e. 100 million degrees, and the temperature resulting thermo nuclear reaction raises to 300 million K, that leads finally to the explosive process. All process of explosion lasts during the tenth of sub micro second [5]. However there are not such temperatures on the Sun too.

Thus, the Solar thermonuclear process results the full nonsense - whether the requirement of approach of reacting atoms on distance of 10-15 m for nuclear fusion, whether Coulomb Law has linearity not in all intervals of charged particles interaction, whether "the tunnel effect" in a represented form is inadequate, whether something else. It would be desirable to expect all these contradictions to be eliminated in the future.

Thus, it can be stated with good reason, that the accepted hypothesis of the Solar activity based on the thermonuclear synthesis of helium from isotopes of hydrogen- D and T is invalid. The basic shortcoming is its full contradiction with the Law of conservation of energy.

Energy and the Law of conservation of energy

Prior to the explanation of the Solar activity reasons and due to its connection with the "energy" concept, let's speak about the energy and its basic properties, i.e. a so well-known subject, that sometimes one should think - whether it is necessary to give consideration of colleagues-scientists on this trivial or hackneyed theme. In advance I wish to apologize to the reader for trivialities which are given in this article in repeated occasion.

But, on the other hand, it seems that exactly in similar and well-known things the Nature secrets are being hidden.
As we shall speak about energy so we do not manage without the Law of conservation of energy which reads, that energy cannot be formed or disappeared: it is only transformed from one kind into another.

On the evidence of this law, differently and absolutely fairly carrying the name of the "Gold law", we shall consider the concrete and, possibly, the simplest case connected with the energy display, for example, the work of the usual fireplace or an oven.

In order to make the oven work and allocate the heat according to the above-named law any other kind of energy should be entered: it can be fire wood, coal, gas, mineral oil and others. We shall admit it works on gas.

At even gas inflow the oven will also work regularly, if there is a periodicity in gas inflow so the release of heat will also have a periodic character. If each 11 minutes, hours, days, weeks, months or years more gas inflow into an oven occurs, just in this and only in this case the release of heat will increase equal to gas inflow growth and for as much time as it was in progress; this is a necessary truth.

As the energy cannot be formed or created, all objects in which energy "is generated", it is expedient,to consider them as "energy converters".
So, we shall sum up our very simple mental experiment: for display of the given (observable) kind of energy in the energy converter the other kind of energy should be supplied and further be transformed into the given kind.
According to the logic of things this rule should concern all converters of energy - whether it is a heating plant, whether it is a hydroelectric power station, a gas-turbine power station or the Sun.

The observer, as a rule, fixes any display of energy through sense organs or by means of devices. But irrespective of it when we observe display of any kind of the energy, the first question which should arise is the following: what kind of energy as a conversion result is the observable kind of energy?

The given circumstance allows to formulate an axiom (according to the definition - the evident truth):
Axiom 1. For operation of any converter of energy the other kind of energy should be supplied which is further transformed into an observable kind of energy.

Why the centre of the Earth and other planets of the Solar system are heated?

It is known, that in the centre of the Earth there is a heat nearby 5 000 K (6, The Earth as a planet), and in the picture 1.the direct display of this heat on the Terrestrial surface is shown [7].




Picture 1.
External display of Terrestrial heat in the form of a volcano.

Let's ask ourselves a question: "What kind of energy conversion is a heat, containing in the Earth centre?". In other words, what feeds this heat? And, despite a huge thermal stream to a terrestrial surface, the temperature of the Earth centre remains constant. It suggests that in the Earth centre any kind of energy is constantly being supplied and converted into a heat. We shall be restricted for a while with such answer to a question about the reason of a reheating of the Earth centre and the full and logically proved answer will be given further.

Let's make a note that the absence of radiation in volcanoes magma says that nuclear processes do not participate in creation of heat of the Earth centre.
The Earth is one of planets of the Solar system and in search of the answer to our question, we shall consider naturally all planets and the Sun from the point of view of presence of a heat in them. It has led us to the following, in our opinion, very interesting results which are depicted in table 1. [8]

Table 1. Some physical parameters of the Sun and planets of the Solar system.

The analysis of data of table 1 shows, that besides the centre of the Earth (1 satellite, 5000),the high temperatures (K)are typical of the centers of number of planets: Mars (2 satellites,1 300), Jupiter (65 satellites,30 000), Saturn (62 satellites, 20 000), Uranium (27 satellites,10 000), the Neptune (13 satellites, 14 000). The coupling (or correlation) between number of planets satellites and the temperature of their centre - as a rule, the more satellites, the higher temperature, is accurately visible, though there not any correlations between the chemical composition of planets and temperature of their centre.

For morevisualization let's construct the graph of dependence of temperature of the centre of planets on number of their satellites.

Graph 1. Dependence of temperature of the centre of planets of the Solar system onnumber of their satellites.

The given dependence (in which formorevisualization the scale is not observedin absciss), accurately reveals the correlation between number of satellites of planets of the Solar system and temperature in their centre - the more satellites rotate round them the higher the temperaturein their centre - that suggests: whether conversion of mechanical energy of satellites creates temperature in their centres?

Further there is a natural question: what is the feature of the movement of planets satellites? First of all, this is a forward motion of bodies on a curvilinear trajectory, and these trajectories are closed.
The idea, that the reason of the heat of planets centre may be conversion of mechanical energy of their satellites, suggests a further idea, that their speed decelerations would be one of the features of a body movement on a curvilinear trajectory.

A theorem. Any curvature of a body movement from a straight line leads to speed deceleration of a moving body, i.e. to braking (or to negative acceleration).
As the criterion of the truth is practice or an experiment so we shall not climb in a jungle of theoretical mechanics and conduct the experiment.

Experiment-surveillance 1. Movement of a bicyclist on a stadium racetrack.
Let's consider the movement of a bicyclist on a stadium racetrack. It is easy to notice, that at a curvature of a movement there is a deceleration or braking. Thus there is a characteristic gnash of tyre casing at the places of their friction on the Earth surface and their reheating takes place. It is one of the simplest examples of conversion of mechanical energy into a heat at movement on a curve.

Conclusion: The body movement on a curve in surface conditions leads to the speed decrease of a body and the part of mechanical energy corresponding to this decrease transforms into a heat.

However it is easy see the natural objections of my opponents concerning accuracy of experiment, for example, it is being made in the air environment with its natural resistance, a path roughness, a friction of the details of mobile parts of a bicycle and others. In this connection we shall conduct an experiment in absence of all above-stated factors.

Experiment-surveillance2 from a practical experience. The movement of the artificial satellites of the Earth.
At movement of the artificial satellite round the Earth in absence of air and accordingly of friction, resistance and details friction also, which are characteristic for moving of some bodies in the terrestrial conditions, the gradual reduction of its orbit is observed and if this should not be corrected from time to time then a body's falling on the Earth takes place.

It occurs because at body movement on the curvilinear closed orbit there is a speed deceleration of a body. Under these conditions the centrifugal force, which is in direct proportion to a speed square, decelerates and speed, a movement radius accordingly decrease too, due to the known law FR=mV2.
So, the theorem is to be proved experimentally and this is an obvious truth.

Axiom 2. If a body moves on the closed curvilinear trajectory its movement experiences constant deceleration(or braking).

Axiom 3.If a body, moving on the closed curvilinear trajectory and its movement has constant or close to constant speed, then something moves it.
There is a natural question: what, or more exactly - what kind of energy the constantly decreasing part of kinetic energy of the 1 satellite of the Earth, 2 satellites of Mars, 13 satellites of Neptune, 27 satellites of Uranium, 62 satellites of Saturn, 65 satellites of Jupiter and, eventually, 9 satellites of the Sun is transformed into? Though according to the logic of the Law of conservation of energy there is a reason to state that this energy is transformed into a heat nevertheless we should not be in a hurry with an answer because this idea must be proved not only logically, but actually too.

What kind of energy is transformed into the Solar heat and why the Sun activity has a periodic character?

According to the Law of conservation of energy, it can not be lost (the "loss" at braking of a part of mechanical energy of planets movement), appeared (the "development" of the Sun heat and other above-stated planets is almost proportional to number of their satellites) and can transform from one kind into another so it is possible to come to the following idea which we shall write in the form of the theorem:

At deceleration of movement of the Solar system planets round the Sun the "loss" of a part of their total mechanical energy is the reason of heat "generation" by the Sun.
The first step in the evidence of this idea is the most important question: whether the total mechanical energy of the Solar system planets is comparable to the energy radiated by the Sun?

The full radiation of the Sun is equal 3,826х1033 erg/s (9, p.241). The full forward energy of planetary system is equal 1,99х1042 erg. The number of seconds in one tropical year is approximately 31567000. The stock of the total mechanical energy of the Solar system planets is enough for the Sun activity maintenance for (1,99*1042 erg/3,83*1033/s/31567000s/year ~ 1650) years. So, the total mechanical energy for the Sun activity maintenance in the Solar system is much more, than it is required. Besides this energy stock is constantly filled up by the constant movement of the Solar system planets. This movement is provided by the Sun rotation on its axis and movement transmission to the planets by means of gravitational field, similarly to contraction form of movement transmission. As the Sun is circulating and rotating on its axis by the centre of our Galaxy so the energy for the Solar activity maintenanceis practically unlimited.

The answer to the first part of a question in the title of the fifth section is not negative, that is, a required energy is a mechanical energy and its quantity for transformation into a heat of the Solar system, is much more than it is required and further it is necessary to prove, that exactly a mechanical energy is being transformed into the Solar heat.

What is the portion of planets in the Solar heat?
It is known, that Jupiter possesses mass in 2.5 times more than all other planets of the Solar system taken together [8]. It means, that the mass of Jupiter makes 2,5: (1+2,5)*100 % = (2,5: 3,5) *100 % = 71,42 % from all total mass of planets of the Solar system and it is logical to assume, that with other things being equal, it has the greatest mechanical energy.

According to the logic of things it can be stated with good reason, that the Sun activity basically should be connected with some parameters of Jupiter movement on its orbit.
The period of the Sun activity fluctuates from 9 till 12.5 years and it is logical to expect, that the orbital period of Jupiter should be about these figures. Actually, this figure makes 11.86 terrestrial years [8].

The given circumstance is the first, essential and indisputable argument for benefit of the offered version.
We connect the fact of the Sun warming up with braking of planets of the Solar system and Jupiter, in particular. However the phenomenon of periodicity of the Sun activity leads to the conclusion, that Jupiter should not simply and constantly to be braked at the movement on the orbit, that is characteristic for anybody movement, but this movement should have periodic change of speed of the forward motion (delay and acceleration).

Before answering to this question we shall consider features of the Sun activity.
In graph 2the dependence of some parameters of the Solar activity [10] is resulted.

Graph 2. The Sun activity on years

It is absolutely clear, that all changes of the Sun activity indicators, presented in this graph, are strictly respective to the temperature alteration in the Sun.
The above mentioned graph suggests, that the mechanical energy of Jupiter sufficiently arrives in the Sun and converts into a heat and this arrival has a sinusoidal character.

Stating this fact we do nothing new - it is a simple commentary on the Law of conservation of energy, the Sun as an example, and there is a task in prospect to prove the periodical arrival of the mechanical energy of Jupiter, which is converted into a heat in strict accordance to the Sun activity cycles.

It is known, that twelve yearly the great oppositions of Jupiter take place that means a staying of the Sun, the Earth and Jupiter on one direct line as it is shown in picture 2 [11]. But for us the most important moment is the fact that in this case Jupiter is nearby perihelion (the nearest distance of planet's orbit to the Sun) of its orbit! [12].

Picture2.The Great opposition of Jupiter nearby perihelion of the orbit.

According to [12]the Great oppositions of Jupiter are observed in the following years: 1951, 1963, 1975, 1987, 1999, 2010, 2022, 2034, 2046, 2058 and 2070, i.e. the years of the great opposition of Jupiter (when the Sun, the Earth and Jupiter are staying on one direct line) and let's correlate these data with graph 2, i.e. the Sun activity sinusoid data.

It is easy to note, that, for example, in 1975 and in 1987 Jupiter is in perihelion and this coincides with the least activity of the Sun!!!
Logically it turns out, that in perihelion Jupiter should have the maximum orbital speed and accordingly the minimum of conversion of mechanical energy into a heat, and in an opposite point of an orbit which is called an aphelion, its orbital speed should be minimal and it should correspond to a maximum activity of the Sun.
But whether the orbital speed of Jupiter is changed in general?
Yes, it changes from V1 =12440 m/s nearby aphelion to V2 =13720 m/s nearby perihelion [13], thus the difference of these speeds makes 1280 m/s. In this case the "loss" of the mechanical energy at Jupiter's weight of1,9*1027 kg makes 36.5*1040 erg.

Though the primary goal for us is to find a source of supplying the other kind of energy into the Sun and this has been executed, nevertheless a natural question arises: where does the "lost" kinetic energy of Jupiter disappear? It is only possible to assume, that this energy is basically spent, considering mutual influences on the other planets of the Solar system and own satellites, on mechanical energy of its own satellites circulation and rotation.

We shall revert to the information about the Great opposition of Jupiter on graph 2 and the picture 2 once again and, comparing the corresponding data, we shall find, that the beginning of Jupiter movement from perihelion (for example, in 1975 and 1987) and accordingly the beginning of speed deceleration of this movement, completely coincide with the beginning of the Solar activity increase! In other words: as soon as the deceleration of orbital speed of Jupiter begins, so the increase of the Sun activity begins too! It is the second and the most important argument in confirmation of the suggested idea.

According to the logic of things it turns out, that the Sun activity should have periodic character in view of periodicity of the rotation and the periodic change of Jupiter's speed round the Sun.

The research of the Sun activity has been carried out from 1755 and as shown in [13], the duration of these cycles fluctuates from 9 (June 1766 - June 1775, 2nd cycle) till 12.6 years (May 1996 - January 2009, 23rd cycle); the reason of this fluctuation is, apparently, the total influence on the Solar activity of the other planets of the Solar system, except Jupiter, the total weight of which makes about 30 % from mass of planets of the Solar system.

The neutrino on the Sun is under complete uncertainty and it is surely connected with absence of the nuclear D+T=He+n processes there. But the presence of the neutrino, even in a small quantity, testifies the presence of the other nuclear reactions in the Sun. Even if there are any nuclear processes with small neutrino emission on the Sun they, most likely, have a secondary character and they occur as a result of high temperature but not vice versa. In other words, the Sun temperature is not generated by the nuclear processes but, most likely, the temperature, formed by the conversion of the planets mechanical energy, is the reason of some nuclear processes in the Sun. These ideas demand implementation of calculations and researches, however, the author does not have any doubt that they will confirm this very simple version of the Sun activity because, as the Great Newton told, "the Nature is simple and does not luxuriate the excessive reasons of things".

So it can be stated that earlier unknown Natural phenomena have been revealed.
1.The conversion of the mechanical energy of the planets of the Solar system into a heat of the Sun at their movement on the closed curvilinear trajectory at the Sun gravitational field. The heating of the centers of some planets of the Solar system with their natural satellites circulating around them occurs similarly.

2.The earlier unknown fundamental physical property of gravitation has been established, consisting of gravitation ability to transform the mechanical energy into a heat though the greatest transformation corresponds to the greatest value of a gravitational field.

3.The periodicity of the Solar activity is connected with the constantly varying speed of Jupiter forward motion on its orbit.

References

1. Thermonuclear reactions on the Sun http://astrolab.ru
2. Solar neutrino. Neutrino astronomy.   http://znaniya-sila.narod.ru
3. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermonuclear reaction
4. http://biofile.ru/kosmos/36.html
5. Nuclear explosion. http://nuclphys.sinp.msu.ru/nuc_techn/reactors/nespl.htm
6. Cyril's and Mephody's Great Encyclopedia.The Earth as a planet.An electronic version. 2007.
7. http://img1.liveinternet.ru/images/attach/c/1//57/766/57766515_Picture3.jpg
8. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar system
9. Allen K.U. Astrophysical magnitude. "World", М, 1977, p. 241.
10. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar-cycle-data.png
11. http://www.ufaplanetarium.ru/news/5784.html
12. List of cycles of the Sun activity http ://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/
13. http://www. freemars.org/jeff/planets/Jupiter.htm
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