НАУЧНЫЕ РАБОТЫ SCIENCE WORKS :   :

H.O.Khoshdurdyev
Candidate of Chemical Sciences

"The Nature is simple and not luxuriates
by the excessive reasons of things"
I.Newton

Why the sun is heated or the phenomenon
of conversion of mechanical energy to heat at movement of bodies
on the closed curvilinear trajectory
Summary

Reason of the Solar radiation and high temperatures in centers of the some planets of the Solar system is conversion of mechanical energy of planets of Solar system and natural satellites of planets accordingly to heat. It is connected with specificity movement of a body on curvilinear closed trajectory with constantly lowering of its speed and accordingly mechanical energy. As energy, including mechanical, according to First Law of thermodynamics, cannot disappear, decreasing part of it is converted to heat. Constanсy of movement speeds of planet is provided by rotation of Sun around its axis, which by means of "a gravitational friction" provides the circulation and rotation of planets of solar system, and the last similarly circulate and rotate of their companions.

Near 11.5-years activity (practically it fluctuates between 9.0 and 12.6 years) of the Sun is connected with a periodic finding of Jupiter in aphelion each 11,86 years with the greatest delay of speed of the reference and according to the greatest conversion of mechanical energy to heat. On the Sun neutrino does not present almost ore does not present because of absence in it a thermonuclear process D+T=He+n.

PART I.  ENERGY, POWER, THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

Today we will speak about energy and power in general - about things so banal, that sometimes you think - whether costs on these to the deprived originality, hackneyed things once again you stop, to pay on this attention of colleagues - scientists.

But, on the other hand, it seems, that in these hackneyed, banal, trivial things and concepts secrets of the Nature are hidden.

If we are going to speak about energy and power - it means, we can't do it without thermodynamics and its most important law - the Law of preservation and transformation of energy which says, that energy cannot neither be created, nor destroyed - it passes from one kind into another.

On light of the first law, in other words and absolutely named fairly "Gold law", we will consider concrete and it is possible, the most simple case connected with display of energy, for example, work of a usual fireplace or an oven.

To keep burnt our oven and allocated heat, according to the first law, to oven must arrive any other kind of energy - it may be fire wood, coal, gas, mineral oil and another depending on what oven work is provided. Let's admit, it works on gas.

At even entering of gas, the oven will work also evenly, if there will be a periodicity in gas receipt, the thermal emission will have also periodic character. If each 11,5 minutes, hours, days, weeks, months or years arrives more gas in an oven, in this and only in this case the thermal emission will increase exactly on so much and by that time, how many more gas has arrived and how many time it is proceeded - it is possible to accept for an axiom.

As energy cannot be created or made, all objects in which energy "is made", it is expediently to name their energy converters.

So, we will sum up our very simple mental experiment: any display of energy is a link in a chain of energy transformations: for display of the given (observable) kind of energy to the energy converter other kind of energy should arrive.

According to the logic of things this rule should concern all converters of energy - whether it is a heating plant, hydroelectric power station, the atomic power station, gas-turbine or the Sun.

It is considered, that Solar heat is created at the expense of thermonuclear reaction - hydrogen transition in helium (that in the given work we will put under serious doubt), and Solar heat passes further in other kinds of energy, for example, to photosynthesis, evaporation of water from oceans and the seas and others.

For more obviousness we will present all aforesaid in the form of the scheme:


The scheme energy transformations

So, that the observable kind of energy of has shown in II, receipt from I of other kind of energy is necessary; the kind of energy "produced" in 2 converter, passes in III second kind of energy and so on.

Points I and II in the given scheme have the greatest value for us.
The observer, as a rule, fixes any display of energy through sense organs or by means of devices. But irrespective of it when we observe display of any kind of energy the first question which at us should arise - result of conversion what kind of energy is the observable kind of energy.

The given circumstance allows formulating of an axiom:
Axiom 1. For work of any converter of energy to it should arrive other kind of energy which passes in an observable kind.

PART II.  GLOBAL POWER AND HEAT OF THE EARTH

As it is earlier shown in [1] and [2], and also in previous article in this site [3], oil, gas and coal which in aggregate make a basis (90 %) modern power, are the converted kinds of energy of heat of the Earth (5 000 К) which preliminary having turned to a thermo current and penetrating the rocks containing carbonates, electro restoration translates inorganic carbonates to "organic carbonates" (hydrocarbons and coal). This idea is formulated more low in the form of the closed scheme which named "the Global power cycle".


This scheme shows, that oil gas and coal which make bases of modern global power, are the converted kind of heat of the Earth. But before to ask itself a question "And whence it undertakes warm the Earth?", we will consider features of a structure of the Earth.


Here is shown a schematic internal structure of the Earth.
Kernel (it is shown red); a cloak (brown); earth crust (yellow); oceans (blue). [4].

Paints in this drawing symbolise distribution of temperature in the Earth. The brightest red colour in the planet centre corresponds to the heat - 5 000 K. Further at movement from the centre of the Earth to its surface colour becomes serially brown, yellow and blue and accordingly the temperature in these areas decreases from 5 000 K to usual land temperature. This picture also shows, that from the centre of the Earth to its surface the warmth and electricity large quantity flows.

In a picture direct display of this heat on the Terrestrial surface is shown [5].

Let's come back and consider our scheme of energy conversion and in point II we will put "heat of the Earth" also we will ask ourselves a question about which we have agreed: "what result of conversion of a kind of energy is heat, containing in the centre of the Earth? In other words -what is heat fed by? And, despite huge thermal and converted in an electricity streams to a terrestrial surface, the temperature of the centre of the Earth remains to a constant. It suggests, that some kind of energy arrives constantly in the centre of the Earth and is converted into heat.

Besides, absence of radiation in magma of volcanoes says that nuclear processes do not participate in creation of heat of the centre of the Earth.

PART III.   WHY OTHER PLANETS OF SOLAR SYSTEM ARE HEATED?

The Earth is one of planets of Solar system and in search of the answer to our question, we will consider naturally all planets and the Sun from the point of view of presence in them of heat. It has led us to the following, in our opinion, very interesting results which are resulted in the following table.

Table 1. Some physical parameters of the Sun and planets of solar system [4,6]

The analysis of data of the given table shows, that except the centre of the Earth, have heats also a number of planets (K): Mars (1 300), Jupiter (30 000), Saturn (20 000), Uranium (10 000), and the Neptune (14 000). Connection (or correlation) between number of companions of planets and temperature of their centre is present - as a rule, the more companions, the more temperature is accurately visible, and with composition of planets and temperature of their centre no relations.

Let's construct for more obviousness the graph of dependence of temperature of the centre of planets from quantity of their companions.



Graph 1. Dependence of temperature of the centre of planets of solar system on number of their companions

The given dependence (for the most obviousness, in abscissa the scale is not observed) accurately shows direct correlation dependence between number of companions of planets of solar system and temperature in their centre - the more companions rotates round them, the above the temperature in their centre - that suggests - whether conversion of mechanical energy of companions creates temperature in their centres?

Further there is a natural question - and what feature movements of companions of planets possess? First of all this is translational movement of bodies on a curvilinear trajectory, and these trajectories are closed.

The idea, that the reason of heat of the centre of planets can be conversion of mechanical energy of their satellites suggests, that feature of movement of a body on a curve trajectory should occur to delay of their speeds.

The theorem. Any curvature of movement of a body from a straight line leads deceleration of speed of a moving body, i.e. to braking (or to negative acceleration).

As criterion of truth is practice or experiment, "not philosophizing crafty" as reads Russian saying, we will not go in a jungle of theoretical mechanics and will make experiment.

Experiment-supervision 1. Movement of the bicyclist on a stadium racetrack.
Let's consider movement of the bicyclist on a stadium racetrack. It is easy to notice, that at a movement curvature there is a delay or, on another, braking. Thus there is a characteristic gnash of tyre covers at the expense of their friction about the Earth. The most important thing, occurs heating of tyre covers. It is the most simple example of conversion of mechanical energy in heat at movement on a curve.
Conclusion: movement of body on a curve in terrestrial conditions leads to decrease in speed of a body and the part of mechanical energy corresponding to this decrease passes in heat.
However it is easy to expect natural objections of my opponents concerning cleanliness of experiment, for example, it is spent in the air environment with its natural resistance, roughness of a path, a friction of details of mobile parts of a bicycle and others. In this connection we will make experiment for lack of all above-stated factors.

Experiment-supervision 2 from practice. Movement of artificial satellites of the Earth.
At movement of the artificial satellite of the Earth round the Earth, for lack of air and according to its friction and resistance, also friction of details, characteristic for moving some bodies in terrestrial conditions, gradual reduction of its orbit is observed and if thus from time to time not to correct it its falling to the Earth occurs.
It occurs because at body movement on the closed curvilinear trajectory there is decrease in speed of a body. Under these conditions centrifugal force which in direct ratio to a square of speed - decreases speed and accordingly the movement radius decreases according to known law: FR=mV2.
So, the theorem is proved experimentally.

Axiom 2. If the body moves on the closed spherical trajectory its movement tests constant deceleration (or braking).

Axiom 3. If the body, moving on the closed spherical trajectory nevertheless moves with constant or nearly constant speed, something moves it.

Further the most interesting begins.
Energy of a moving body is called as kinetic energy and is written:

Е=mV2/2

At a curvature of movement of a body from the rectilinear there is a decrease in speed of a body from V1 to V2 and according to decrease in its kinetic energy on:

As energy cannot be lost at all, it in our experiment in stadium is transformed to heat which is shown in a tyre cover of the bicyclist and on the Earth in places of a touch of a tyre cover to it - heat is allocated in friction places! The main moment which should be noted especially - conversion, i.e. energy transformation is shown within one system: a bicycle - the Earth. And the "lost" energy of the artificial companion of the Earth turns to what kind of energy, it will be clear from the further statement.

There is a natural question: to what, more exactly - to what kind of energy constantly decreasing part of kinetic energy of the Moon, 2 satellites of Mars, 65 satellites of Jupiter, 62 satellites of Saturn, 27 satellites of Uranium, 13 satellites of the Neptune and, eventually, 9 satellites with their huge total kinetic energy of the Sun is transformed?


PART IV.  THE SHORT ANALYSIS OF SOLAR ACTIVITY

Solar activity is connected with the thermonuclear process D+T=He+n, occurring in it [4]. However, in nuclear processes, it is artificial carried out in terrestrial conditions, first, all nuclear or thermonuclear fuel if it is in local volume is involved in reaction, secondly, has very short duration - seconds. In spite of the fact that on the sun all hydrogen is in its volume, it all does not enter reaction. An idea is, how much hydrogen would not be on the Sun, it should enter synthesis of helium and process should end quickly, according to analogy the thermonuclear explosion on Earth, however activity of the Sun totals billions of years.

It is known, that in all nuclear processes, in particular in thermo nuclear process, it is allocated neutrino pervasive an elementary particle and it would be logical to expect to find out it in the big abundance on the Sun. However neutrino on the Sun it is not enough (4 times!) for thermo nuclear processes or it is not present absolutely [7].

Let's result one more example which is powerful counterargument to the existing point of view concerning solar thermonuclear reaction: "… to enter reaction, nuclei should break a potential barrier. For example, for reaction deuterium-tritium the size of this barrier makes approximately 0.1 МeV. If to translate 0.1 MeV to temperature under formula Boltzmann E=kT, it will turn out approximately 109 K" [8].

According to [9], the temperature in the Sun centre makes 13,5 million degrees on Calvin that makes (13 500 000/1 000 000 000) х100 % = 1,3 % from demanded and consequently it is necessary to consider probability of this process close to zero.

This and all other arguments call into question probability of thermonuclear synthesis on the Sun.

The existing opinion concerning existence in the centre of the Sun of thermonuclear processes is connected by that in Sun spectra hydrogen and helium is found out. A chemical composition defined from the analysis of a solar spectrum: hydrogen - about 90 %, helium - 10 %, other elements - less than 0.1 % (on number of atoms) [4].

However almost these elements are in an exact parity and on the Neptune, Jupiter consists of hydrogen (90 %) and helium (10 %), Saturn also consists of 80 % of hydrogen and 18 % of helium, however thermonuclear process in them is not present. Thus, it is possible to ascertain, that hydrogen and helium presence in heavenly bodies is far insufficient condition of behavior of thermonuclear process in them.

It is known, that the Sun has a period of 11-year-old activity [4,6]. Nuclear or thermo nuclear processes by similar property do not possess. Periodicity of solar activity would be logical for connecting with that or other periodic process occurring in the solar system, more truly, with periodicity earning of other kind of energy.

It is known also, that to the Sun the pipeline delivering isotopes of hydrogen 1Н2 and 1Н3 in the ratio 1:1, especially with 11,5-year-old periodicity of increase in delivery of thermonuclear fuel is not found out - round it high vacuum.

Let's make a note, that from the point of view of periodic processes, in solar system, except periodic movements of planets with constant braking (at which the part of total mechanical energy of planets of solar system corresponding to this braking should turn to other kind of energy according to the Law of conservation of energy) it is found out nothing.

Let's come back to our energy conversion scheme.

To function any energy convertor it should any other kind of energy come in it. In this case an observable kind of energy is warmly the Sun.

A question: "what kind of energy conversion is the result of heat the Sun?" would be quite natural.

As energy can in itself be lost ("loss" at braking of a part of mechanical energy of movement of planets), to appear ("making" of heat by the Sun and other above-stated planets almost proportionally to quantities of their companions) but to pass from one kind in another it is necessary to come to a following conclusion: "Loss" at braking of movement of planets of solar system round the Sun of a part of their total mechanical energy is the reason of "generation" of heat the Sun Or: Movement of planets of solar system round the Sun on the closed curvilinear trajectory with constant braking in their aphelion is the reason of Solar activity.
Thus, it is a question of detection before an unknown phenomenon of Nature - CONVERSION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY OF THE PHYSICAL BODY IN HEAT AT ITS MOVEMENT ON THE CLOSED CURVILINEAR TRAJECTORY AND IN THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD OF MORE MASSIVE BODY.
And process conversion of mechanical energy in heat occurs the centre of more massive body.
So - analogy:
- At movement of a physical body in a magnetic field conversion of mechanical energy in an electricity is under certain conditions found out;
- at movement of a physical body in a gravitational field of more massive body on the closed curvilinear trajectory there is a conversion of mechanical energy in heat.


Thus it is clear and the reason of heats in centers of planets of solar system - rotation round them companions on the closed curvilinear trajectory.
Here we can answer a question on the heat reason in the centre of the Earth which we have put in introduction is a reference and Moon rotation. As combustible minerals are formed, as is proved earlier, at the expense of heat of the Earth, and heat is formed from rotation of the Moon round the Earth it is possible it is safely possible to assert, that:
Immediate cause of global power (oil-gas-coal) on the Earth is rotation of the Moon round the Earth and the statement is accordingly fair: Oil, gas, coal and other combustible minerals will near the Earth constantly while the Moon will rotate round the Earth.

It is clear, that the reason of rotation of planets round the axes and their reference round the Sun is rotation about the axis the Sun which is transferred to all planets by analogy to a frictional kind of transfer of movement. Thus, it is the answer to a question concerning an energy source in solar system which we have put in introduction.

So, a source of all kinds of energy in solar system (rotation and the reference of planets round the Sun, rotation and the reference of companions of planets round them, radiation of the Sun, temperature in the centers of planets) is Sun rotation about its axis.

Naturally there is a question - whether total mechanical energy of planets of solar system is comparable to the energy radiated by the Sun?

Full radiation of the Sun is equal 3,826х1033 erg [6, p. 241]. Full forward energy of planetary system is equal 1,99х1042 erg, full energy of rotation of planets of solar system is equal 0,7х1042 erg [6, p. 202] and accordingly total mechanical energy of planets of solar system is equal 2,69х1042 erg. This energy is in 0,7х1011 (seventy billions) times more energy of the Sun. It turns out, that approximately one seventy milliard part of total mechanical energy of planets of solar system is converted to heat and by that provides constant solar activity.

From the point of view of the given theory it is easy to explain 11-yeras periodicity (more precisely 11.5 years) of solar activity, and also insignificance neutrino in the Sun.

The offered theory predicts, that the first of these phenomena is most possibly connected by total greatest delay of movement of planets in each 11.5 years according to laws of movement of planets of solar system.

It is known, that Jupiter possesses weight in 318 weights of the Earth, that in 2.5 times more massive than all other planets together taken [6]. It means, that the weight of Jupiter makes 2,5: (1+2,5 х100 % = (2,5: 3,5) х100 % = 71,42 % from all cumulative weight of planets of solar system and it is logical to assume, that 11,5 years activity of the Sun should be connected basically with the maximum delay of movement of Jupiter in aphelion (the most remote point of a planet from the Sun), and the cycle time of Jupiter should be about 11-12 years. Actually this numeral is 11.86 terrestrial years [7].

It turns out, that 11.5-years periodicity of solar activity is defined by a periodic finding of Jupiter nearby aphelion. The given circumstance is incontestable argument in favour of the offered theory.

And why there should be a maximum delay of movement of a planet in aphelion?

Let's consider movement of the Earth as the most studied planet of solar system and this analogy we will use for Jupiter. So, the citation: "Speed of movement Earth on an orbit, 29,765 km/s equal on the average, fluctuates from 30,27 km/s (in perihelion) to 29,27 km/s (in aphelion)" [4, the Earth as a planet]. From here it is well visible, that perihelion (the nearest point of a trajectory of a planet to the Sun) is a point where the planet receives positive acceleration from the Sun, and aphelion is a point where the planet gets negative acceleration (delay) and movement of any planet nearby aphelion is a place of the maximum conversion of mechanical movement in heat.

Whether but there corresponds this statement of the validity in case of Jupiter?

PART V.  WHY ACTIVITY OF THE SUN HAS CYCLIC CHARACTER?

Dependence of some parametres of solar activity on years [11] is more low resulted on the graph 2.

Graph 2

Absolutely clearly, what behind all changes of indicators of Solar activity presented in this picture there is strictly a respective alteration of temperature in the Sun and a question - "And what is the reason of periodic change of temperature in the Sun?" is quite natural. The graph resulted above suggests, that in the Sun any other kind of energy arrives and is converted in heat and this receipt has sinusoidal character.

Confirming it, we new do not do anything - it is simple comment to the first Law of thermodynamics on an example of the Sun and we should prove a problem periodic receipt of other energy which is converted in heat in strict conformity with cycles of Solar activity.

It is known, each 12 years occurs great oppositions of Jupiter that means a finding of the Sun, the Earth and Jupiter on one line that is shown in a picture more low [12]. But for us the most important moment is that fact, that thus Jupiter is nearby perihelion the orbit!!! [13]

Now we will consider the table borrowed from this of a source [13]

Table 2. Great oppositions of Jupiter from 1951 to 2070

Year

Date

Distance, a . u.

1951

October, 2nd

3,94

1963

On October, 8th

3,95

1975

October, 13th

3,95

1987

October, 18th

3,96

1999

October, 23rd

3,96

2010

September, 21st

3,95

2022

September, 26th

3,95

2034

October, 1st

3,95

2046

October, 6th

3,95

2058

October, 11th

3,95

2070

October, 11th

3,95

in which years of Great opposition of Jupiter (a finding of the Sun, the Earth and Jupiter on one line) are presented and is comparable these data to data of schedule 2 with a sinusoid of Solar activity. It is easy to see, that years, for example: 1975, 1987 practically completely coincide that Jupiter is in these points in perihelion that coincides with the least activity of the Sun!!! It completely proves our version that perihelion of Jupiter is a point, in which it has the maximum speed of movement and accordingly the minimum conversion of mechanical energy in heat, and afelion, in which Jupiter has the minimum speed of movement (because of reduction of kinetic energy which cannot disappear!) and so the maximum value of conversion of mechanical energy in heat.

Actually it turns out, that graph 2 is the periodic function describing movement of Jupiter on the its orbit with the minimum speed in aphelion both maximum in perihelion and corresponding indicators of conversion of its mechanical energy in heat in the centre of the Sun.

Since 1987 and year further there is a small discrepancy of minima of activity of the Sun to a year of great opposition, is possible in view of a difference of a cycle time of Jupiter (11,86 year) and a cycle of great oppositions (12 years). And the information above does not confirm exact coincidence of great opposition with exact coordinate of perihelion, and asserts, that at great opposition Jupiter is about the perihelion. It is possible to consider it as the definitive moment of the proof of idea of a warming up of the Sun and some planets of solar system because of conversion of mechanical energy of planets of solar system and companions of planets of the same system in heat. Research of activity of the Sun is conducted from 1755 year and apparently from [14], duration of these cycles fluctuates from 9 (June 1766 - June 1775, 2nd cycle) till 12,6 years (May of 1996 till January of 2009 year, 23rd cycle), but these figures fluctuate nearby aphelion of Jupiter.

According to the logic of things it turns out, that activity of the Sun should have periodic character in view of periodicity of the circulation and rotation of Jupiter round the Sun.

And neutrino on the Sun it is few or not absolutely therefore, there are no D+T=He+n nuclear processes there. Even if on the Sun there are any nuclear processes they, most likely, have secondary character - they occur as a result of high temperatures. These ideas demand carrying out of calculations and researches, however the author does not have any doubt that they will confirm this very simple theory. Because, as about it great Newton spoke: "Nature is simple and does not luxuriate the excessive reasons of things".

Thus, it is possible to consider hypothesis earlier stated by the author [15] and the theory [16] about the reason of solar activity completely proved.

So, it is revealed earlier unknown natural phenomena -

   "CONVERSION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY OF HEAVENLY BODIES AT THEIR MOVEMENT ON THE CLOSED CURVILINEAR TRAJECTORY IN THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD OF MORE MASSIVE BODY IN HEAT OF THE CENTER OF THE SUN AND SOME PLANETS OF SOLAR SYSTEM".

   "EARLIER UNKNOWN PROPERTY OF GRAVITATION CONSISTING IN TRANSFORMATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY IN HEAT IN THE POINT OF THE GREATEST VALUE OF ITS FIELD IS ESTABLISHED"

The literature

1. H.O.Hoshdurdyev. "About the physical and chemical version of formation of combustible minerals in earth`s crust". Natural and engineering sciences". Moscow, "Sputnik+", 2005, №2, p.166-169.
2. H.O.Hoshdurdyev. The electrochemical theory of formation of oil. "Natural and engineering sciences". Moscow, "Sputnik +", 2011, №2, p.253-255.
3. Official site Candidate of Chemical Sciences mr. H.O.Khoshdurdyev
4. Cyril's and Methodius big Encyclopedia. An electronic variant. 2007.
5. http://img1.liveinternet.ru/images/attach/c/1//57/766/57766515_Picture3.jpg
6. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar system
7. The Solar neutrino. Neutrino astronomy.znaniya-sila.narod.ru
8. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermonuclear reaction
9. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun
10. Allen K.U. Astrophysical sizes. "Mir", М, 1977.
11. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar-cycle-data.png  (21.02.2012)
12. http://www.ufaplanetarium.ru/news/5784.html
13. http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/Media/graphics/SolarCycle.gif (22.02.2012)
14. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Список циклов солнечной активности
15. H.O.Hoshdurdyev. A hypothesis of solar activity. "Natural and engineering sciences". Moscow, "Sputnik + ", 2007, №3, s.88-90.
17. H.O.Hoshdurdyev. Theory of solar activity. "Natural and engineering sciences". Moscow, "Sputnik + ", 2011, № 6, p.
[ download docx. 690,0 kb ]

To print page on the printer


 
 
       Now on a site -   visitors        It is updated:
Copyright © 2012-2014  H.O.Khoshdurdyev. All rights reserved!
Copyright © 2012-2014  D.S.Annamuradov (Web-design)