Candidate of Chemical Sciences
"The Nature is simple and not luxuriates
by the excessive reasons of things"
Reason of the Solar radiation and high temperatures in centers of the some planets
of the Solar system is conversion of mechanical energy of planets of Solar system
and natural satellites of planets accordingly to heat. It is connected with specificity
movement of a body on curvilinear closed trajectory with constantly lowering of
its speed and accordingly mechanical energy. As energy, including mechanical, according
to First Law of thermodynamics, cannot disappear, decreasing part of it is converted
to heat. Constanсy of movement speeds of planet is provided by rotation of Sun around
its axis, which by means of "a gravitational friction" provides the circulation and
rotation of planets of solar system, and the last similarly circulate and rotate of
Near 11.5-years activity (practically it fluctuates between 9.0 and 12.6 years)
of the Sun is connected with a periodic finding of Jupiter in aphelion each 11,86
years with the greatest delay of speed of the reference and according to the greatest
conversion of mechanical energy to heat. On the Sun neutrino does not present almost
ore does not present because of absence in it a thermonuclear process D+T=He+n.
Today we will speak about energy and power in general - about things so banal, that
sometimes you think - whether costs on these to the deprived originality, hackneyed
things once again you stop, to pay on this attention of colleagues - scientists.
But, on the other hand, it seems, that in these hackneyed, banal, trivial things
and concepts secrets of the Nature are hidden.
If we are going to speak about energy and power - it means, we can't do it without
thermodynamics and its most important law - the Law of preservation and transformation
of energy which says, that energy cannot neither be created, nor destroyed - it
passes from one kind into another.
On light of the first law, in other words and absolutely named fairly "Gold law",
we will consider concrete and it is possible, the most simple case connected with
display of energy, for example, work of a usual fireplace or an oven.
To keep burnt our oven and allocated heat, according to the first law, to oven must
arrive any other kind of energy - it may be fire wood, coal, gas, mineral oil and
another depending on what oven work is provided. Let's admit, it works on gas.
At even entering of gas, the oven will work also evenly, if there will be a periodicity
in gas receipt, the thermal emission will have also periodic character. If each 11,5
minutes, hours, days, weeks, months or years arrives more gas in an oven, in this
and only in this case the thermal emission will increase exactly on so much and
by that time, how many more gas has arrived and how many time it is proceeded -
it is possible to accept for an axiom.
As energy cannot be created or made, all objects in which energy "is made", it is
expediently to name their energy converters.
So, we will sum up our very simple mental experiment: any display of energy is a
link in a chain of energy transformations: for display of the given (observable)
kind of energy to the energy converter other kind of energy should arrive.
According to the logic of things this rule should concern all converters of energy
- whether it is a heating plant, hydroelectric power station, the atomic power station,
gas-turbine or the Sun.
It is considered, that Solar heat is created at the expense of thermonuclear reaction
- hydrogen transition in helium (that in the given work we will put under serious
doubt), and Solar heat passes further in other kinds of energy, for example, to
photosynthesis, evaporation of water from oceans and the seas and others.
For more obviousness we will present all aforesaid in the form of the scheme:
So, that the observable kind of energy of has shown in II, receipt from I of other
kind of energy is necessary; the kind of energy "produced" in 2 converter, passes
in III second kind of energy and so on.
Points I and II in the given scheme have the greatest value for us.
The observer, as a rule, fixes any display of energy through sense organs or by
means of devices. But irrespective of it when we observe display of any kind of
energy the first question which at us should arise - result of conversion what kind
of energy is the observable kind of energy.
The given circumstance allows formulating of an axiom:
Axiom 1. For work of any converter of energy to it should arrive other kind of
energy which passes in an observable kind.
As it is earlier shown in  and , and also in previous article in this site ,
oil, gas and coal which in aggregate make a basis (90 %) modern power, are the converted
kinds of energy of heat of the Earth (5 000 К) which preliminary having turned to
a thermo current and penetrating the rocks containing carbonates, electro restoration
translates inorganic carbonates to "organic carbonates" (hydrocarbons and coal).
This idea is formulated more low in the form of the closed scheme which named "the
Global power cycle".
This scheme shows, that oil gas and coal which make bases of modern global power,
are the converted kind of heat of the Earth. But before to ask itself a question
"And whence it undertakes warm the Earth?", we will consider features of a structure
of the Earth.
Paints in this drawing symbolise distribution of temperature in the Earth. The brightest
red colour in the planet centre corresponds to the heat - 5 000 K. Further at movement
from the centre of the Earth to its surface colour becomes serially brown, yellow
and blue and accordingly the temperature in these areas decreases from 5 000 K to
usual land temperature. This picture also shows, that from the centre of the Earth
to its surface the warmth and electricity large quantity flows.
In a picture direct display of this heat on the Terrestrial surface is shown .
Let's come back and consider our scheme of energy conversion and in point II we
will put "heat of the Earth" also we will ask ourselves a question about which we
have agreed: "what result of conversion of a kind of energy is heat, containing
in the centre of the Earth? In other words -what is heat fed by? And, despite huge
thermal and converted in an electricity streams to a terrestrial surface, the temperature
of the centre of the Earth remains to a constant. It suggests, that some kind of
energy arrives constantly in the centre of the Earth and is converted into heat.
Besides, absence of radiation in magma of volcanoes says that nuclear processes
do not participate in creation of heat of the centre of the Earth.
The Earth is one of planets of Solar system and in search of the answer to our question,
we will consider naturally all planets and the Sun from the point of view of presence
in them of heat. It has led us to the following, in our opinion, very interesting
results which are resulted in the following table.
The analysis of data of the given table shows, that except the centre of the Earth,
have heats also a number of planets (K): Mars (1 300), Jupiter (30 000), Saturn (20 000),
Uranium (10 000), and the Neptune (14 000). Connection (or correlation) between
number of companions of planets and temperature of their centre is present - as a
rule, the more companions, the more temperature is accurately visible, and with
composition of planets and temperature of their centre no relations.
The given dependence (for the most obviousness, in abscissa the scale is not observed)
accurately shows direct correlation dependence between number of companions of planets
of solar system and temperature in their centre - the more companions rotates round
them, the above the temperature in their centre - that suggests - whether conversion
of mechanical energy of companions creates temperature in their centres?
Further there is a natural question - and what feature movements of companions of
planets possess? First of all this is translational movement of bodies on a curvilinear
trajectory, and these trajectories are closed.
The idea, that the reason of heat of the centre of planets can be conversion of
mechanical energy of their satellites suggests, that feature of movement of a body
on a curve trajectory should occur to delay of their speeds.
The theorem. Any curvature of movement of a body from a straight line leads
deceleration of speed of a moving body, i.e. to braking (or to negative acceleration).
As criterion of truth is practice or experiment, "not philosophizing crafty" as
reads Russian saying, we will not go in a jungle of theoretical mechanics and will
Experiment-supervision 1. Movement of the bicyclist on a stadium racetrack.
Let's consider movement of the bicyclist on a stadium racetrack. It is easy to notice,
that at a movement curvature there is a delay or, on another, braking. Thus there
is a characteristic gnash of tyre covers at the expense of their friction about
the Earth. The most important thing, occurs heating of tyre covers. It is the most
simple example of conversion of mechanical energy in heat at movement on a curve.
Conclusion: movement of body on a curve in terrestrial conditions leads to decrease
in speed of a body and the part of mechanical energy corresponding to this decrease
passes in heat.
However it is easy to expect natural objections of my opponents concerning cleanliness
of experiment, for example, it is spent in the air environment with its natural
resistance, roughness of a path, a friction of details of mobile parts of a bicycle
and others. In this connection we will make experiment for lack of all above-stated
Experiment-supervision 2 from practice. Movement of artificial satellites of the Earth.
At movement of the artificial satellite of the Earth round the Earth, for lack of
air and according to its friction and resistance, also friction of details, characteristic
for moving some bodies in terrestrial conditions, gradual reduction of its orbit
is observed and if thus from time to time not to correct it its falling to the Earth
It occurs because at body movement on the closed curvilinear trajectory there is
decrease in speed of a body. Under these conditions centrifugal force which in direct
ratio to a square of speed - decreases speed and accordingly the movement radius
decreases according to known law: FR=mV2.
So, the theorem is proved experimentally.
Axiom 2. If the body moves on the closed spherical trajectory its movement tests
constant deceleration (or braking).
Axiom 3. If the body, moving on the closed spherical trajectory nevertheless
moves with constant or nearly constant speed, something moves it.
Further the most interesting begins.
Energy of a moving body is called as kinetic energy and is written:
At a curvature of movement of a body from the rectilinear there is a decrease in
speed of a body from V1 to V2 and according to decrease
in its kinetic energy on:
As energy cannot be lost at all, it in our experiment in stadium is transformed
to heat which is shown in a tyre cover of the bicyclist and on the Earth in places
of a touch of a tyre cover to it - heat is allocated in friction places! The main
moment which should be noted especially - conversion, i.e. energy transformation
is shown within one system: a bicycle - the Earth. And the "lost" energy of the
artificial companion of the Earth turns to what kind of energy, it will be clear
from the further statement.
There is a natural question: to what, more exactly - to what kind of energy constantly
decreasing part of kinetic energy of the Moon, 2 satellites of Mars, 65 satellites
of Jupiter, 62 satellites of Saturn, 27 satellites of Uranium, 13 satellites of
the Neptune and, eventually, 9 satellites with their huge total kinetic energy
of the Sun is transformed?
Solar activity is connected with the thermonuclear process D+T=He+n, occurring in
it . However, in nuclear processes, it is artificial carried out in terrestrial
conditions, first, all nuclear or thermonuclear fuel if it is in local volume is
involved in reaction, secondly, has very short duration - seconds. In spite of the
fact that on the sun all hydrogen is in its volume, it all does not enter reaction.
An idea is, how much hydrogen would not be on the Sun, it should enter synthesis
of helium and process should end quickly, according to analogy the thermonuclear
explosion on Earth, however activity of the Sun totals billions of years.
It is known, that in all nuclear processes, in particular in thermo nuclear process,
it is allocated neutrino pervasive an elementary particle and it would be logical
to expect to find out it in the big abundance on the Sun. However neutrino on the
Sun it is not enough (4 times!) for thermo nuclear processes or it is not present
Let's result one more example which is powerful counterargument to the existing
point of view concerning solar thermonuclear reaction: "… to enter reaction, nuclei
should break a potential barrier. For example, for reaction deuterium-tritium the
size of this barrier makes approximately 0.1 МeV. If to translate 0.1 MeV to temperature
under formula Boltzmann E=kT, it will turn out approximately 109 K" .
According to , the temperature in the Sun centre makes 13,5 million degrees on
Calvin that makes (13 500 000/1 000 000 000) х100 % = 1,3 % from demanded and consequently
it is necessary to consider probability of this process close to zero.
This and all other arguments call into question probability of thermonuclear synthesis on the Sun.
The existing opinion concerning existence in the centre of the Sun of thermonuclear
processes is connected by that in Sun spectra hydrogen and helium is found out.
A chemical composition defined from the analysis of a solar spectrum: hydrogen -
about 90 %, helium - 10 %, other elements - less than 0.1 % (on number of atoms) .
However almost these elements are in an exact parity and on the Neptune, Jupiter
consists of hydrogen (90 %) and helium (10 %), Saturn also consists of 80 % of
hydrogen and 18 % of helium, however thermonuclear process in them is not present.
Thus, it is possible to ascertain, that hydrogen and helium presence in heavenly
bodies is far insufficient condition of behavior of thermonuclear process in them.
It is known, that the Sun has a period of 11-year-old activity [4,6]. Nuclear or
thermo nuclear processes by similar property do not possess. Periodicity of solar
activity would be logical for connecting with that or other periodic process occurring
in the solar system, more truly, with periodicity earning of other kind of energy.
It is known also, that to the Sun the pipeline delivering isotopes of hydrogen 1Н2
and 1Н3 in the ratio 1:1, especially with 11,5-year-old periodicity of
increase in delivery of thermonuclear fuel is not found out - round it high vacuum.
Let's make a note, that from the point of view of periodic processes, in solar
system, except periodic movements of planets with constant braking (at which the
part of total mechanical energy of planets of solar system corresponding to this
braking should turn to other kind of energy according to the Law of conservation
of energy) it is found out nothing.
Let's come back to our energy conversion scheme.
To function any energy convertor it should any other kind of energy come in it.
In this case an observable kind of energy is warmly the Sun.
A question: "what kind of energy conversion is the result of heat the Sun?" would be quite natural.
As energy can in itself be lost ("loss" at braking of a part of mechanical energy
of movement of planets), to appear ("making" of heat by the Sun and other above-stated
planets almost proportionally to quantities of their companions) but to pass from
one kind in another it is necessary to come to a following conclusion: "Loss" at
braking of movement of planets of solar system round the Sun of a part of their
total mechanical energy is the reason of "generation" of heat the Sun Or: Movement
of planets of solar system round the Sun on the closed curvilinear trajectory with
constant braking in their aphelion is the reason of Solar activity.
Thus, it is a question of detection before an unknown phenomenon of Nature - CONVERSION
OF MECHANICAL ENERGY OF THE PHYSICAL BODY IN HEAT AT ITS MOVEMENT ON THE CLOSED
CURVILINEAR TRAJECTORY AND IN THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD OF MORE MASSIVE BODY.
And process conversion of mechanical energy in heat occurs the centre of more massive body.
So - analogy:
- At movement of a physical body in a magnetic field conversion of mechanical energy
in an electricity is under certain conditions found out;
- at movement of a physical body in a gravitational field of more massive body on
the closed curvilinear trajectory there is a conversion of mechanical energy in heat.
Thus it is clear and the reason of heats in centers of planets of solar system -
rotation round them companions on the closed curvilinear trajectory.
Here we can answer a question on the heat reason in the centre of the Earth which
we have put in introduction is a reference and Moon rotation. As combustible minerals
are formed, as is proved earlier, at the expense of heat of the Earth, and heat
is formed from rotation of the Moon round the Earth it is possible it is safely
possible to assert, that:
Immediate cause of global power (oil-gas-coal) on the Earth is rotation of the Moon
round the Earth and the statement is accordingly fair: Oil, gas, coal and other
combustible minerals will near the Earth constantly while the Moon will rotate
round the Earth.
It is clear, that the reason of rotation of planets round the axes and their reference
round the Sun is rotation about the axis the Sun which is transferred to all planets
by analogy to a frictional kind of transfer of movement. Thus, it is the answer
to a question concerning an energy source in solar system which we have put in
So, a source of all kinds of energy in solar system (rotation and the reference
of planets round the Sun, rotation and the reference of companions of planets round
them, radiation of the Sun, temperature in the centers of planets) is Sun rotation
about its axis.
Naturally there is a question - whether total mechanical energy of planets of solar
system is comparable to the energy radiated by the Sun?
Full radiation of the Sun is equal 3,826х1033 erg [6, p. 241]. Full forward energy
of planetary system is equal 1,99х1042 erg, full energy of rotation of
planets of solar system is equal 0,7х1042 erg [6, p. 202] and accordingly
total mechanical energy of planets of solar system is equal 2,69х1042
erg. This energy is in 0,7х1011 (seventy billions) times more energy
of the Sun. It turns out, that approximately one seventy milliard part of total
mechanical energy of planets of solar system is converted to heat and by that provides
constant solar activity.
From the point of view of the given theory it is easy to explain 11-yeras periodicity
(more precisely 11.5 years) of solar activity, and also insignificance neutrino in the Sun.
The offered theory predicts, that the first of these phenomena is most possibly
connected by total greatest delay of movement of planets in each 11.5 years according
to laws of movement of planets of solar system.
It is known, that Jupiter possesses weight in 318 weights of the Earth, that in
2.5 times more massive than all other planets together taken . It means, that
the weight of Jupiter makes 2,5: (1+2,5 х100 % = (2,5: 3,5) х100 % = 71,42 % from
all cumulative weight of planets of solar system and it is logical to assume,
that 11,5 years activity of the Sun should be connected basically with the maximum
delay of movement of Jupiter in aphelion (the most remote point of a planet from
the Sun), and the cycle time of Jupiter should be about 11-12 years. Actually this
numeral is 11.86 terrestrial years .
It turns out, that 11.5-years periodicity of solar activity is defined by a periodic
finding of Jupiter nearby aphelion. The given circumstance is incontestable argument
in favour of the offered theory.
And why there should be a maximum delay of movement of a planet in aphelion?
Let's consider movement of the Earth as the most studied planet of solar system
and this analogy we will use for Jupiter. So, the citation: "Speed of movement
Earth on an orbit, 29,765 km/s equal on the average, fluctuates from 30,27 km/s
(in perihelion) to 29,27 km/s (in aphelion)" [4, the Earth as a planet]. From
here it is well visible, that perihelion (the nearest point of a trajectory of a
planet to the Sun) is a point where the planet receives positive acceleration from
the Sun, and aphelion is a point where the planet gets negative acceleration (delay)
and movement of any planet nearby aphelion is a place of the maximum conversion
of mechanical movement in heat.
Whether but there corresponds this statement of the validity in case of Jupiter?
Dependence of some parametres of solar activity on years  is more low resulted on the graph 2.
Absolutely clearly, what behind all changes of indicators of Solar activity presented
in this picture there is strictly a respective alteration of temperature in the
Sun and a question - "And what is the reason of periodic change of temperature in
the Sun?" is quite natural. The graph resulted above suggests, that in the Sun
any other kind of energy arrives and is converted in heat and this receipt has
Confirming it, we new do not do anything - it is simple comment to the first Law
of thermodynamics on an example of the Sun and we should prove a problem periodic
receipt of other energy which is converted in heat in strict conformity with cycles
of Solar activity.
It is known, each 12 years occurs great oppositions of Jupiter that means a finding
of the Sun, the Earth and Jupiter on one line that is shown in a picture more low
. But for us the most important moment is that fact, that thus Jupiter is nearby
perihelion the orbit!!! 
in which years of Great opposition of Jupiter (a finding of the Sun, the Earth and
Jupiter on one line) are presented and is comparable these data to data of schedule
2 with a sinusoid of Solar activity. It is easy to see, that years, for example:
1975, 1987 practically completely coincide that Jupiter is in these points in perihelion
that coincides with the least activity of the Sun!!! It completely proves our version
that perihelion of Jupiter is a point, in which it has the maximum speed of movement
and accordingly the minimum conversion of mechanical energy in heat, and afelion,
in which Jupiter has the minimum speed of movement (because of reduction of kinetic
energy which cannot disappear!) and so the maximum value of conversion of mechanical
energy in heat.
Actually it turns out, that graph 2 is the periodic function describing movement
of Jupiter on the its orbit with the minimum speed in aphelion both maximum in perihelion
and corresponding indicators of conversion of its mechanical energy in heat in the
centre of the Sun.
Since 1987 and year further there is a small discrepancy of minima of activity of
the Sun to a year of great opposition, is possible in view of a difference of a
cycle time of Jupiter (11,86 year) and a cycle of great oppositions (12 years).
And the information above does not confirm exact coincidence of great opposition
with exact coordinate of perihelion, and asserts, that at great opposition Jupiter
is about the perihelion. It is possible to consider it as the definitive moment
of the proof of idea of a warming up of the Sun and some planets of solar system
because of conversion of mechanical energy of planets of solar system and companions
of planets of the same system in heat. Research of activity of the Sun is conducted
from 1755 year and apparently from , duration of these cycles fluctuates from
9 (June 1766 - June 1775, 2nd cycle) till 12,6 years (May of 1996 till January of
2009 year, 23rd cycle), but these figures fluctuate nearby aphelion of Jupiter.
According to the logic of things it turns out, that activity of the Sun should have
periodic character in view of periodicity of the circulation and rotation of Jupiter
round the Sun.
And neutrino on the Sun it is few or not absolutely therefore, there are no D+T=He+n
nuclear processes there. Even if on the Sun there are any nuclear processes they,
most likely, have secondary character - they occur as a result of high temperatures.
These ideas demand carrying out of calculations and researches, however the author
does not have any doubt that they will confirm this very simple theory. Because,
as about it great Newton spoke: "Nature is simple and does not luxuriate the excessive
reasons of things".
Thus, it is possible to consider hypothesis earlier stated by the author  and
the theory  about the reason of solar activity completely proved.
So, it is revealed earlier unknown natural phenomena -
"CONVERSION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY OF HEAVENLY BODIES AT THEIR MOVEMENT ON THE
CLOSED CURVILINEAR TRAJECTORY IN THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD OF MORE MASSIVE BODY IN
HEAT OF THE CENTER OF THE SUN AND SOME PLANETS OF SOLAR SYSTEM".
"EARLIER UNKNOWN PROPERTY OF GRAVITATION CONSISTING IN TRANSFORMATION OF MECHANICAL
ENERGY IN HEAT IN THE POINT OF THE GREATEST VALUE OF ITS FIELD IS ESTABLISHED"