Candidate of Chemical Sciences
"The Nature is simple and not luxuriates
by the excessive reasons of things"
According to stories of hunters and workers of mountain reserves, mummy is formed
very quickly: it appears suddenly - a maximum in 1-2 years in those places where
it was not absolutely.
Use mummy in folk medicine totals over 2 thousand years - however the mechanism
of its formation is unknown till now.
3. Repeated formation of oil. In a picture more low the chink, in a local
dialect named "the Nobel chink" which is drilled about 1850th year by the company
"Brothers Nobel" on peninsula Cheleken on Caspian coast (Turkmenistan) is shown.
From this chink all oil available under it in due time has been extorted and further
after full operation it have preserved, and a mouth have concreted that from a chink
the mix of water and oil which polluted environment subsequently began to flow.
However, despite all attempts to stop leakage till today from this and others round
chinks oil constantly arrives on a terrestrial surface (fig. 2).
3.1. The citation: "On a number of oil chinks oil stocks unexpected began
to be restored. One of first such paradoxes has been found out in an oil field in
Tersko-Sunzhensky area, nearby to Grozny. The first chinks here have drilled in 1893,
in places of natural petrodisplays. In 1895 one of chinks from depth of 140 m has
given a grandiose fountain of oil. In 12 days of spouting walls of an oil barn have
failed and the oil stream has flooded towers with a number of the located chinks.
Only after three years the fountain managed to be tamed, then it has run low and
from a gushing way of an oil recovery have passed to the pump.
To the beginning of the Great Patriotic War (Second World War) all chinks strongly
supplied with water, and some of them have preserved.
After approach of the piece extraction have restored, and, to general surprise,
almost all high supplied with water chinks have started to give waterless oil!
Inexplicably chinks have received "the second breath". After even half a century
the situation has repeated. To the beginning of the Chechen wars chinks again were
strongly supplied with water, have essentially decreased yield, and during wars
they were not exploited. When extraction has been renewed, yields have considerably
increased. And from first small chinks of a steel through hole annulus again oilfiltation
on a terrestrial surface was visible. Supporters of the organic theory were in
Something similar has occurred and on one of the world's largest the Romashkinsky
oil deposit (Russia) which is exploited already more than 60 years. By estimations
of the Tatar geologists, from deposit chinks it was possible to take 710 million
of tons of oil. However for today here already have extracted almost 3 billion tons
of oil! Classical laws of geology of oil and gas cannot explain the observable facts.
Some chinks as though pulsed: falling yields was suddenly replaced by their long-term
growth. The pulsing rhythm has been noted at many other chinks in territory of the
former USSR" .
4. Existence of hydrocarbons in some planets of solar system where there are
even no signs of a life. For example, methane СН4 is found out on the
Neptune, Pluto, Uranium, Saturn, and on Jupiter except it are found out ethane
С2Н6 and even acetylene С2Н2 . By
the way, on Jupiter there is also a magnetic field  that is an indicator of
presence of an electric current in a planet and, as consequence hydrocarbons and
what connection between them it will be clear from the text stated more low.
5. Prevailing disposition oil and gas deposits along broken and fissured earth`s
crust zones, in parallel large orogenic and to volcanic dispositions (is available
in view of huge cracks of Earth crust through which volcanoes are shown, geysers,
mud volcanoes and other places of displays of heat of the centre of the Earth).
6. A practical constancy of concentration of oxygen and carbonic gas in atmosphere
at steadily increasing consumption of combustible minerals and accordingly oxygen
at a constancy (or even reduction) a vegetative earth's mantle, inexhaustibility
of stocks of combustible minerals and others.
Great Russian chemist D.I.Mendeleev wrote, that "if oil cannot have an origin
organic it is necessary to find other explanation for its genesis" [5, p. 250],
attempt of that we will make in the given work.
Let's begin with problem statement.
That any theory in the field of natural sciences - in particular concerning energy
and power questions - had chance of existence, it should be in the contradiction
with fundamental laws of natural sciences and logic. One of such laws is "The law
of conservation of energy": energy cannot neither be created, nor to destroy - it
passes from one kind to another. In other words, to have in stock energy, other
kind of energy should precede it, and previous energy should be not less, than this.
This position we take as the base on which we will try to develop the theory of
formation of oil and further and all other combustible minerals.
So, oil is a power material or in another way, comprises energy. Naturally there
is a question - whence it took this energy or, speaking thermodynamics language -
what kind of energy has turned to energy of oil? And, this transformed into energy
oil should be more than enough to cover the energy equivalent at least of 11 billion
of tons of oil annually.
From the information mentioned above logically results, that in bowels of the
Earth there should be constantly operating energy source and its energy passes in
energy of oil.
Interestingly, and what it can be?
This question will be a general line according to which search of ways of development
of the theory of formation of oil will be spent.
Problem of creation of the new theory of formation of hydrocarbons we will formulate
in the form of the decision of a return task of full burning of hydrocarbons in
the presence of oxygen (why so - it will be clear from the further statement).
Their most simple representative is methane - СН4. We will write the chemical
equation of its full burning in the presence of oxygen:
On symbols of elements in figures their corresponding degrees of oxidation are specified.
Apparently from the equation (1), reaction corresponding to it is oxidation-reduction
- each molecule of methane, giving in aggregate 8 electrons to two molecules of oxygen,
turns to one molecule of carbonic gas and two molecules of water. There is a natural
question - whether it is impossible to receive initial products of reaction (1) -
СН4 +2О2, if in a mix of end-products СН4 +2О2
to transfer 8 electrons? In other words - whether probably reaction (1) to carry
out in the opposite direction?
Occuring of chemical processes on the equation (2) means convertibility of the
equation (1). It means convertibility of the processes described by these equations
that is in the full consent with the Law of the convertibility, being the fundamental
law of the Nature and a basic conclusion from the Universal thermodynamics [8,9]
which bases are developed by the Turkmen scientist professor M.Mamedov.
There is a second natural question - whether there are experimental data - as the
basic criteria of true - concerning chemical reduction carbonate substances to the
lowest degrees of oxidation of carbon? Yes - these processes successfully proceed
in reactors-electrolyzers . Besides, at restoration carbon oxide on the cathode
are formed a mix of hydrocarbons - methane, ethane, ethilen - on reaction:
And, processes of restoration of chemical substances, including carbon, occur both
on direct, and on an alternating current .
So, intermediate conclusions:
1. Both theoretical and experimental bases of the offered electrochemical theory
of formation of oil are strong enough.
2. At electric current carrying out through the oxidised forms of carbon they
are restored to less oxidised forms, sometimes completely - to hydrocarbons.
Following conditions are necessary for electrorestoration carbonate compounds in
- presence of the electroconductive environment;
- electric current presence;
- presence of carbonate a material for chemical reduction.
If we show, that in Earth crust there are same or close conditions for the above-stated
process, as well as in electrolyzers, it will gave us rights to admit idea about
an occur of similar processes in Earth`s crust too.
Well-known, that the Earth is electroconductive and an electric current in it arises
because to influence of a stream of solar plasma (so-called "the Solar wind") on
magnetosphere, indignations in which leads to the Terrestrial electricity - to a
stream of the charged particles in the Earth - electrons, ions - in the directions
corresponding to laws of electromagnetism [12,13]. However in our opinion, the basic
source of the Terrestrial electricity the heat of the centre of the Earth (5 000 °С)
 thanks to which the thermocurrent is formed, directed from the centre of the
Earth to its surface.
Presence of constantly existing magnetic field of the Earth  - the direct proof
of existence of a direct current in it. As the thermocurrent by its nature is direct
current, than magnetic field created by it should be constant too. If the constant
magnetic field of the Earth makes 99 % of all magnetic field of the Earth logically
it turns out, that in the Earth the direct current operates basically and it should
be caused a heat of the centre of the Earth, though classical the geoelectrician
the reason of Terrestrial currents carries to indignation magnetosphere of the Earth
by "the Solar wind" .
Presence carbonate materials in the Earth does not cause doubts - in structure practically
all rocks limestones, dolomite and other carbonates, as a rule, enter. In the
given work under carbonate mineral is understood all kind substances of oxidised
So, it is specified on presence in Earth`s crust of all conditions of chemical
reduction of carbonates - it electroconductive, in it the electric current flows
and there is a considerable quantity carbonate minerals.
It is known , that the greatest number of oil deposits are located on borders
of tectonic plates which separate from each other the spaces, filled by the liquid
magma which external display are geysers, mud volcanoes, sources of hot or warm
waters, volcanoes. In other words, it is sites on a terrestrial surface in which
the greatest stream of heat from Terrestrial bowels is found out.
According to principles of linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics if there is at least
one stream in any direction all other streams are not equal to zero. In this case
we are interesting the theoretical possibility of a stream of an electricity from
the centre of the Earth to its surface. Last achievements of the thermodynamic theory,
more precisely, a principle of totality of the streams, being one of conclusions
of the linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics which working out as above about it
is mentioned, connected with a name of the professor of M.Mamedov, also confirms
theoretical possibility of a thermocurrent.
From these considerations there is clear a reason of a primary arrangement of oil
deposits on borders of geological "tectonic" plates - naturally, that with other
things being equal - the greatest stream of heat and accordingly an electricity,
the more oil and gas.
So, the above-stated information leads to such logic conclusion: oil is formed
in bowels of the Earth thanking passages through carbonates and water of terrestrial
electric currents. In other words, under the influence of the terrestrial electric
currents created by a heat of Terrestrial bowels, there is a transition of inorganic
carbonates in organic carbonates (coal) or their hydrogenous compounds (oil, gas),
another named "combustible minerals".
For more clearness, we will consider a full cycle of formation, combustion with
energy reception on Earth`s surface and absorption of products of combustion (CO2)
by Earth for methane - which is the most simple hydrocarbon - on that way which
is offered in the given theory:
Let's comment on the scheme (1) and the equations (2-5).
The scheme (1) means, that warmly the Earth which as a matter of fact is a kind
of energy which it is designated through-E, gives by the ground a stream of electrons
(8e-) or simply electric current. Further this stream of electrons, having passed
through a calcium carbonate and water (2), restores carbonate carbon (C4+)
and hydrogen (H+) of water with formation of methane (CH4),
hydroxide calcium - Ca(OH2) and hydroxide groups (OH-).
Hydroxide groups are transferred on "relay race reactions" through a drainage cover
of the Earth and through oceans are taken out on a surface of the Earth in the form
of oxygen and water, preliminary being exposed to recombination reaction, and electron
comes back also in a starting point in (2). The formed methane in the form of natural
gas is taken out on a surface of the Earth and used as energy (4) and that initial
energy E which, as a matter of fact, is warmly the Earth, transformed to a thermocurrent
and further methane in the form of energy of chemical bonds in a methane molecule
is thus allocated. Thus also carbonic gas and water are formed. Further the formed
water joins in the general water cycle in the Nature, and carbonic gas through water
surfaces and a drainage cover of the Earth finally gets to that place in the Earth,
whence it have taken in the form of methane.
Naturally, thus it will be instantly seized by calcium hydroxide with formation
of a carbonate of calcium. And, the equations (1), (2), (3), and also (5) describe
the processes occurring in bowels of the Earth, and the process described by the
equation (4) occurs on a surface of the Earth.
Thus, our "travel" on the equations (1-5) has led us to the initial equation (1),
on the basis it is quite natural to believe, that we deal with cyclic process.
The equations (1-5) give exact material balance that is additional argument in
rightness of the offered theory.
(1-5) processes described by the equations for methane as from set of variants of
processes of formation of combustible minerals, it is possible to represent a special
case the below-mentioned equations (6-10) for all combustible minerals:
In the above-stated equations (6) - (10) all kinds of combustible minerals are represented
by one formula CnHm, not quite clear for nonspecialists and in this connection the
small comment is required.
First of all, n and m - only positive integers.
Formula CnHm, as a rule, means at:
1. m=2n+2 - aliphatic hydrocarbons - methane homologs;
2. m=2n - olefins or cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons;
3. m=n - aromatic hydrocarbons;
4. m-->0 or m=0 - coal.
One of the basic difficulties of the "Theory of an origin of species" by Darwin
is absence in the Nature, so-called "intermediate biological kinds" - the live organisms
standing between fish and reptiles, fish and birds, reptiles and birds and so on which,
according to the evolutionary theory, once existed and further have led to existing
variety of biological kinds. The finding in the Nature metamorphized remains of
similar hypothetical animals would support the given theory and, probably, would
lead to its recognition. However they in the Nature are absent - at least, till
now any paleontologic excavation in the world did not meet them, and it forces to
doubt the validity of the given theory.
"The theory of an origin of species" is devoted questions of genesis of biological
kinds, and offered on consideration of scientists and experts the theory of
an origin of combustible minerals considers questions of genesis of oil and other
combustible minerals and carrying out of some analogy between these theories for
the purpose of elimination of lacks by the first in the second theory is quite
So, if to be expressed in the popular language, the given theory asserts, that
oil is formed of any rock (stone), containing carbonates.
Carbonates are salts of carbonic acid Н2СО3 (СаСО3 - calcite, limestone, marble;
СаСО3*MgCO3 - dolomite etc. which are a part of set of rocks), and in the structure
contains the acid rest - fragment СО32- which is object of chemical reduction by
terrestrial currents and according to the logic of things as a part of oil there
should be the compounds containing oxygen, which are intermediate chemical compounds
between СО32- and hydrocarbons. Whether but takes a place it in the Nature?
Really, the oil composition includes variety of the compounds, containing oxygen -
"these components of oil are presented by acids R-COOH, phenols ArOH, ketones, aethers
RCOOR and lactones, more rare anhydrides and furan compounds and their total maintenance
makes 5-10 % .
It speaks well for that idea, that a primogenitor of oil is oxygen containing
compounds of carbon what carbonates are.
It is known, that oil in English is called stone oil. One more name of oil
in English - petroleum. From the geological dictionary it is possible to find,
that petro means a stone, and oleum - oil. Again we have come to
stone and oil! Why people named this oil stony, but not iron, aluminium,
wooden, earthen? Why these names - a stone and oil - are inseparable?
One is indisputable - if your surname, for example, Johnson, in the beginning of
your family there was a person with a name John! And it is similar - if the material
is called "Stone oil" in an origin of this "oil", "stone" also
has the main value.
In Turkmenistan there is a city of Balkanabat which bore earlier name "Nebitdag".
In Turkmen, "nebit" means "oil" and "dag" - "mountain" and a cumulative translation
into English means "Mountainoil". But mountain, as a rule are stones and again we
are at inseparably of "stone" and "oil". Can be this all accidents? We must clear
point out - in the Nature accident does not happen!
Shale concerns to terrigene rocks, as sown in picture 3 - it is simply a stone (Pic.3).
Simple visual comparison of these two slates in above pictures shows, that in the
combustible of them many organic carbon which was formed from inorganic carbon -
it is in structure of inorganic carbonates. However, are there inoranic carbonates
in structure of combustible shale?
Let's pay attention to the information:
"Combustible slate consists of minerals with prevalence minerals (calcite - СаСО3 ,
dolomite СаСО3*MgCO3), … and an organic part - last makes 10-30 % from weight of
breed and only in slates of the highest quality reaches 50-70 %" .
The obvious neighbourhood of inorganic and organic carbon is here found out too.
Let's finish etymology (linguistics part studying an origin of words) of word
"oil" by words of great Russian chemist D.I.Mendeleev: "Major circumstance is
positions of oil districts near mountain ranges" [5, p.239].
In acknowledgement and in a substantiation absolutely true notes of the great scientist
can be added the following: the structure practically all rocks includes carbonates.
Mountains are, basically, product of volcanic activity which with a passing of huge
time intervals has calmed down. Now echoes of this, already the calmed down activity,
are shown in mountain areas in the form of hot sources of water - geysers, mud
volcanoes or there are even active volcanoes. In other words in mountains or about
them are available both petroforming minerals, and a stream of heat from Terrestrial
bowels which also is the reason of an electric stream which performs the basic work
of petro formation. However it at all does not mean, that out of mountains there
can not be an oil! Combustible minerals will be and are there, where are present
carbonate minerals (and they can be in the under of the Earth!) and a stream of
heat and accordingly an electricity from Terrestrial bowels!
One more example. It is known, that "… Norway is the second in the world net-exporter
of gas and takes the sixth place in the world on oil export" . Norway with
world's reserves of hydrocarbons is near to Iceland, another named "the Country
of geysers and volcanoes". It is natural, that the neighbourhood of places of huge
streams of heat from Terrestrial bowels and abundance of hydrocarbons also not the
casual geographical phenomenon. Such examples it is possible to result much -
practically all large deposits of hydrocarbons are located on breaks of geological
It is possible to present the processes described above by the equations (6-10)
in a cyclic (reversible) form, as shown in picture 5.
As this cycle describes formation and use of all usual combustible minerals and whereas
they make a basis practically all (about 90 %) the power used by mankind it is logical
to name it "the Global power cycle".