НАУЧНЫЕ РАБОТЫ SCIENCE WORKS :   :

H.O.Khoshdurdyev
Candidate of Chemical Sciences

"The Nature is simple and not luxuriates
by the excessive reasons of things"
I.Newton

Global power - whence it undertakes
or the new theory of formation of combustible minerals and
a principle of inexhaustible power resources of the Earth
The resume

Oil and other combustible minerals are formed from inorganic carbonates and water by electrochemical reduction by means of passage through them of terrestrial electric currents (thermocurrent), forming at the expense of a heat of terrestrial bowels. Carbonic gas, forming at their combustion both absorbed by the Earth and transformed into inorganic carbonates in its bowels, is initial raw materials of their formation and in view of recurrence of process "formation-burning", similarly water circulation in the Nature, resources of combustible minerals never-ending. Within the given theory such global natural phenomena, as non photosynthetic process of allocation of oxygen by the Earth through oceans, and absorption of carbonic gas by the Earth through water surfaces are accurately explained.

Introduction

Practically all power used by mankind, is a combustible minerals and without them it is difficult to imagine today's level of a human civilization. Oil among them takes the central place because of its especially valuable qualities. For some countries it is vital necessity and appreciably is a state policy basis. Among minerals there is no product which could be compared on the importance to oil. For a year in the world the large quantity of the energy is consumed which is equivalent on power effect to use more than 11 billion of tons of oil. The basic share of energy sources is concerned to oil, coal and natural gas, which equal 87 % of all spent power resources. And the first place continues to keep oil. [1].

However, despite it, the conceptual scientific base on which it would be possible to develop the theory, explaining an oil origin in the crust of Earth now is absent. Therefore development of a scientific theory for this area of a science is rather actual scientific problem having also the big practical value.

"Knowing as well as where there is an oil and gas formation as there is their migration, it is possible to solve more confidently questions of searches and investigation of oil and gas deposits, an estimation of their stocks and prospects oil-gas content investigated territories" [2].

1. A modern state of a problem of genesis of oil

Now there are two viewpoints at a problem of a substantiation of formation of oil - organic and inorganic. The history of these viewpoints is that the inorganic idea has been rejected because of absurdity of its basic positions [3]. For the same reason on 6th (1963), 7th (1967) and 8th (1971) International Oil Congresses inorganic hypotheses have not received support [4].

Therefore the preference is given "organic" idea of formation of oil and because of absence more or less logical other concept, is possible by a principle - "at least something even nasty, than nothing".

In our opinion the bowl of scales towards organic idea of genesis of oil was inclined by researches of many scientists in XIX-XX centuries which were engaged in reception of oil of mixes from various products of an animal origin at the raised pressure and temperatures - meat, animal fats and others and had not bad results - they really received a mix of the organic substances, having oil composition [3].

However the "organic" theory which is based on conceptions, that oil is formed from remains of dead animals has a number of problems which it can not answer. It has been above mentioned, that energy annually consumed by mankind is equal to 11 billion tons of an oil equivalent. In that case this idea leads, at least, to four big absurdities:

1. The absurdity with initial raw materials - for reception annually 11 billion tons of oil, according to [3], is required 110 billion tons of pure meat or at weight of mammoths or dinosaurs in 2 tons and at weight of pure meat in them 1 ton, annually is required (!) 110 billion units of dinosaurs or mammoths.

2. Absurdity with preservation. Usually dead animal is taken away and destroyed very quickly - for several hours, but the given idea demands, that remains of animals remained in an untouched condition - I ask attention and patience, the dear reader! - for some tens and hundred millions years!!! Even if authors of this idea with a gun in their hands will protect this hypothetical place of destruction of 1-2 billion animals (for formation of an oil deposit with a stock in 100-200 million tons) from eating their by other wild animals, they cannot provide integrity of remains. Even in absence of predatory animals they will decay by microorganisms quickly enough.

3. Absurdity with transportation and temperature. We will admit, that remains of these animals are preserved by adherents of organic idea so neither microorganisms, nor wild animals do not touch them. But it is necessary to subject all this mass of meat to temperature processing at 350 0С.At the average the temperature gradient with depth across Turkmenistan, for example, makes 33 0C/km and for achievement of the above-stated temperature it is necessary to appear in depth of 350 0С (/33 0S/km) of =10,6 km. But who or what will transport these billion of tons of remains there, and then the "formed" oil upwards to depths of 3-5 kilometres?

4. Absurdity paleontologic - skeletons of these "petroanimals" should appear in the same depths, as an oil deposit, but paleontologists find their transformed into rock remains on a daylight. And in an epilogue to these absurdities it is necessary to remember firmly, that biological materials - proteins, fats (remains of animals and microorganisms) and carbohydrates (plants and microseaweeds) in natural conditions neither on air, nor under the Earth, under water do not remain not only "millions geological years" as the "organic" theory demands it, and in all a maximum during few days are consumed by their live fellows. Some of the adherents of ideas of an organic direction of genesis of oil to initial "raw materials" of formation of oil try to carry not large animals, but microseaweed and other microorganisms.

However biologycal laws are identical both big animals and microorganisms - they are quickly eaten by other live organisms and actually it turns out, that raw materials in the Nature for formation of such quantities of oil from remains of live organisms, no. It means senselessness of an organic hypothesis of genesis of oil.

Let's finish consideration of questions of an "organic" origin of oil by words of great scientist D.I.Mendeleev: "… looking at set of the data extracted for oil and for decomposition of the rests - there is no possibility to admit formation of oil from organisms" [5, p. 235].

So, neither "organic", nor "inorganic" hypotheses are insolvent an explanation of genesis of oil.
The theory of formation of oil should answer all questions concerning to these problem, however on below-mentioned basic questions logical answers should be obligatory:

1. A finding as a part of oil of the chemical compounds containing only in live organisms (by the way, this fact is the basic argument of "an organics").

2. Fast formation of oil. In the Nature rather fast occurrence natural piceous product, draining from crevices of rocks and mountains - mummy (mountain balm) which is formed for 1-2 years (instead of millions geological years!) in rock where is absent both fossils and high temperatures (fig. 1).



Fig. 1
This picture was photographed in mountains Koytendag (Turkmenistan).
On it infiltration of mummy (actually dense crude oil) from rock is visible.

According to stories of hunters and workers of mountain reserves, mummy is formed very quickly: it appears suddenly - a maximum in 1-2 years in those places where it was not absolutely.
Use mummy in folk medicine totals over 2 thousand years - however the mechanism of its formation is unknown till now.

3. Repeated formation of oil. In a picture more low the chink, in a local dialect named "the Nobel chink" which is drilled about 1850th year by the company "Brothers Nobel" on peninsula Cheleken on Caspian coast (Turkmenistan) is shown.

Fig. 2
This picture was photographed on island Cheleken and on it the chink drilled roughly in the middle of 19 century is visible.
Now, despite preservation and mouth concreting, from it under the big pressure drains in outside oil with water.

From this chink all oil available under it in due time has been extorted and further after full operation it have preserved, and a mouth have concreted that from a chink the mix of water and oil which polluted environment subsequently began to flow. However, despite all attempts to stop leakage till today from this and others round chinks oil constantly arrives on a terrestrial surface (fig. 2).

3.1. The citation: "On a number of oil chinks oil stocks unexpected began to be restored. One of first such paradoxes has been found out in an oil field in Tersko-Sunzhensky area, nearby to Grozny. The first chinks here have drilled in 1893, in places of natural petrodisplays. In 1895 one of chinks from depth of 140 m has given a grandiose fountain of oil. In 12 days of spouting walls of an oil barn have failed and the oil stream has flooded towers with a number of the located chinks. Only after three years the fountain managed to be tamed, then it has run low and from a gushing way of an oil recovery have passed to the pump.

To the beginning of the Great Patriotic War (Second World War) all chinks strongly supplied with water, and some of them have preserved.
After approach of the piece extraction have restored, and, to general surprise, almost all high supplied with water chinks have started to give waterless oil! Inexplicably chinks have received "the second breath". After even half a century the situation has repeated. To the beginning of the Chechen wars chinks again were strongly supplied with water, have essentially decreased yield, and during wars they were not exploited. When extraction has been renewed, yields have considerably increased. And from first small chinks of a steel through hole annulus again oilfiltation on a terrestrial surface was visible. Supporters of the organic theory were in perplexity.

Something similar has occurred and on one of the world's largest the Romashkinsky oil deposit (Russia) which is exploited already more than 60 years. By estimations of the Tatar geologists, from deposit chinks it was possible to take 710 million of tons of oil. However for today here already have extracted almost 3 billion tons of oil! Classical laws of geology of oil and gas cannot explain the observable facts. Some chinks as though pulsed: falling yields was suddenly replaced by their long-term growth. The pulsing rhythm has been noted at many other chinks in territory of the former USSR" [6].


4. Existence of hydrocarbons in some planets of solar system where there are even no signs of a life. For example, methane СН4 is found out on the Neptune, Pluto, Uranium, Saturn, and on Jupiter except it are found out ethane С2Н6 and even acetylene С2Н2 [7]. By the way, on Jupiter there is also a magnetic field [7] that is an indicator of presence of an electric current in a planet and, as consequence hydrocarbons and what connection between them it will be clear from the text stated more low. 5. Prevailing disposition oil and gas deposits along broken and fissured earth`s crust zones, in parallel large orogenic and to volcanic dispositions (is available in view of huge cracks of Earth crust through which volcanoes are shown, geysers, mud volcanoes and other places of displays of heat of the centre of the Earth).

6. A practical constancy of concentration of oxygen and carbonic gas in atmosphere at steadily increasing consumption of combustible minerals and accordingly oxygen at a constancy (or even reduction) a vegetative earth's mantle, inexhaustibility of stocks of combustible minerals and others.

Great Russian chemist D.I.Mendeleev wrote, that "if oil cannot have an origin organic it is necessary to find other explanation for its genesis" [5, p. 250], attempt of that we will make in the given work.
Let's begin with problem statement.

2. Problem statement

That any theory in the field of natural sciences - in particular concerning energy and power questions - had chance of existence, it should be in the contradiction with fundamental laws of natural sciences and logic. One of such laws is "The law of conservation of energy": energy cannot neither be created, nor to destroy - it passes from one kind to another. In other words, to have in stock energy, other kind of energy should precede it, and previous energy should be not less, than this.

This position we take as the base on which we will try to develop the theory of formation of oil and further and all other combustible minerals.
So, oil is a power material or in another way, comprises energy. Naturally there is a question - whence it took this energy or, speaking thermodynamics language - what kind of energy has turned to energy of oil? And, this transformed into energy oil should be more than enough to cover the energy equivalent at least of 11 billion of tons of oil annually.

From the information mentioned above logically results, that in bowels of the Earth there should be constantly operating energy source and its energy passes in energy of oil.
Interestingly, and what it can be?

This question will be a general line according to which search of ways of development of the theory of formation of oil will be spent.

3. The theory of formation of hydrocarbons

Problem of creation of the new theory of formation of hydrocarbons we will formulate in the form of the decision of a return task of full burning of hydrocarbons in the presence of oxygen (why so - it will be clear from the further statement).
Their most simple representative is methane - СН4. We will write the chemical equation of its full burning in the presence of oxygen:

On symbols of elements in figures their corresponding degrees of oxidation are specified.
Apparently from the equation (1), reaction corresponding to it is oxidation-reduction - each molecule of methane, giving in aggregate 8 electrons to two molecules of oxygen, turns to one molecule of carbonic gas and two molecules of water. There is a natural question - whether it is impossible to receive initial products of reaction (1) - СН4 +2О2, if in a mix of end-products СН4 +2О2 to transfer 8 electrons? In other words - whether probably reaction (1) to carry out in the opposite direction?

Occuring of chemical processes on the equation (2) means convertibility of the equation (1). It means convertibility of the processes described by these equations that is in the full consent with the Law of the convertibility, being the fundamental law of the Nature and a basic conclusion from the Universal thermodynamics [8,9] which bases are developed by the Turkmen scientist professor M.Mamedov.
There is a second natural question - whether there are experimental data - as the basic criteria of true - concerning chemical reduction carbonate substances to the lowest degrees of oxidation of carbon? Yes - these processes successfully proceed in reactors-electrolyzers [10]. Besides, at restoration carbon oxide on the cathode are formed a mix of hydrocarbons - methane, ethane, ethilen - on reaction:


or at restoration of dioxide of carbon - formic acid:

And, processes of restoration of chemical substances, including carbon, occur both on direct, and on an alternating current [11].
So, intermediate conclusions:
1. Both theoretical and experimental bases of the offered electrochemical theory of formation of oil are strong enough.
2. At electric current carrying out through the oxidised forms of carbon they are restored to less oxidised forms, sometimes completely - to hydrocarbons.
Following conditions are necessary for electrorestoration carbonate compounds in electrolyzers:
- presence of the electroconductive environment;
- electric current presence;
- presence of carbonate a material for chemical reduction.


If we show, that in Earth crust there are same or close conditions for the above-stated process, as well as in electrolyzers, it will gave us rights to admit idea about an occur of similar processes in Earth`s crust too.

Well-known, that the Earth is electroconductive and an electric current in it arises because to influence of a stream of solar plasma (so-called "the Solar wind") on magnetosphere, indignations in which leads to the Terrestrial electricity - to a stream of the charged particles in the Earth - electrons, ions - in the directions corresponding to laws of electromagnetism [12,13]. However in our opinion, the basic source of the Terrestrial electricity the heat of the centre of the Earth (5 000 °С) [7] thanks to which the thermocurrent is formed, directed from the centre of the Earth to its surface.

Presence of constantly existing magnetic field of the Earth [7] - the direct proof of existence of a direct current in it. As the thermocurrent by its nature is direct current, than magnetic field created by it should be constant too. If the constant magnetic field of the Earth makes 99 % of all magnetic field of the Earth logically it turns out, that in the Earth the direct current operates basically and it should be caused a heat of the centre of the Earth, though classical the geoelectrician the reason of Terrestrial currents carries to indignation magnetosphere of the Earth by "the Solar wind" [12].

Presence carbonate materials in the Earth does not cause doubts - in structure practically all rocks limestones, dolomite and other carbonates, as a rule, enter. In the given work under carbonate mineral is understood all kind substances of oxidised of carbon.

So, it is specified on presence in Earth`s crust of all conditions of chemical reduction of carbonates - it electroconductive, in it the electric current flows and there is a considerable quantity carbonate minerals.

It is known [3], that the greatest number of oil deposits are located on borders of tectonic plates which separate from each other the spaces, filled by the liquid magma which external display are geysers, mud volcanoes, sources of hot or warm waters, volcanoes. In other words, it is sites on a terrestrial surface in which the greatest stream of heat from Terrestrial bowels is found out.

According to principles of linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics if there is at least one stream in any direction all other streams are not equal to zero. In this case we are interesting the theoretical possibility of a stream of an electricity from the centre of the Earth to its surface. Last achievements of the thermodynamic theory, more precisely, a principle of totality of the streams, being one of conclusions of the linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics which working out as above about it is mentioned, connected with a name of the professor of M.Mamedov, also confirms theoretical possibility of a thermocurrent.

From these considerations there is clear a reason of a primary arrangement of oil deposits on borders of geological "tectonic" plates - naturally, that with other things being equal - the greatest stream of heat and accordingly an electricity, the more oil and gas.

So, the above-stated information leads to such logic conclusion: oil is formed in bowels of the Earth thanking passages through carbonates and water of terrestrial electric currents. In other words, under the influence of the terrestrial electric currents created by a heat of Terrestrial bowels, there is a transition of inorganic carbonates in organic carbonates (coal) or their hydrogenous compounds (oil, gas), another named "combustible minerals".

4. The basic equations hydrocarbon formation

For more clearness, we will consider a full cycle of formation, combustion with energy reception on Earth`s surface and absorption of products of combustion (CO2) by Earth for methane - which is the most simple hydrocarbon - on that way which is offered in the given theory:
Let's comment on the scheme (1) and the equations (2-5).
The scheme (1) means, that warmly the Earth which as a matter of fact is a kind of energy which it is designated through-E, gives by the ground a stream of electrons (8e-) or simply electric current. Further this stream of electrons, having passed through a calcium carbonate and water (2), restores carbonate carbon (C4+) and hydrogen (H+) of water with formation of methane (CH4), hydroxide calcium - Ca(OH2) and hydroxide groups (OH-). Hydroxide groups are transferred on "relay race reactions" through a drainage cover of the Earth and through oceans are taken out on a surface of the Earth in the form of oxygen and water, preliminary being exposed to recombination reaction, and electron comes back also in a starting point in (2). The formed methane in the form of natural gas is taken out on a surface of the Earth and used as energy (4) and that initial energy E which, as a matter of fact, is warmly the Earth, transformed to a thermocurrent and further methane in the form of energy of chemical bonds in a methane molecule is thus allocated. Thus also carbonic gas and water are formed. Further the formed water joins in the general water cycle in the Nature, and carbonic gas through water surfaces and a drainage cover of the Earth finally gets to that place in the Earth, whence it have taken in the form of methane.

Naturally, thus it will be instantly seized by calcium hydroxide with formation of a carbonate of calcium. And, the equations (1), (2), (3), and also (5) describe the processes occurring in bowels of the Earth, and the process described by the equation (4) occurs on a surface of the Earth.

Thus, our "travel" on the equations (1-5) has led us to the initial equation (1), on the basis it is quite natural to believe, that we deal with cyclic process.
The equations (1-5) give exact material balance that is additional argument in rightness of the offered theory.

(1-5) processes described by the equations for methane as from set of variants of processes of formation of combustible minerals, it is possible to represent a special case the below-mentioned equations (6-10) for all combustible minerals:

In the above-stated equations (6) - (10) all kinds of combustible minerals are represented by one formula CnHm, not quite clear for nonspecialists and in this connection the small comment is required.
First of all, n and m - only positive integers.
Formula CnHm, as a rule, means at:
1. m=2n+2 - aliphatic hydrocarbons - methane homologs;
2. m=2n - olefins or cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons;
3. m=n - aromatic hydrocarbons;
4. m-->0 or m=0 - coal.

5. Once again about genesis

One of the basic difficulties of the "Theory of an origin of species" by Darwin is absence in the Nature, so-called "intermediate biological kinds" - the live organisms standing between fish and reptiles, fish and birds, reptiles and birds and so on which, according to the evolutionary theory, once existed and further have led to existing variety of biological kinds. The finding in the Nature metamorphized remains of similar hypothetical animals would support the given theory and, probably, would lead to its recognition. However they in the Nature are absent - at least, till now any paleontologic excavation in the world did not meet them, and it forces to doubt the validity of the given theory.

"The theory of an origin of species" is devoted questions of genesis of biological kinds, and offered on consideration of scientists and experts the theory of an origin of combustible minerals considers questions of genesis of oil and other combustible minerals and carrying out of some analogy between these theories for the purpose of elimination of lacks by the first in the second theory is quite natural.

So, if to be expressed in the popular language, the given theory asserts, that oil is formed of any rock (stone), containing carbonates.
Carbonates are salts of carbonic acid Н2СО3 (СаСО3 - calcite, limestone, marble; СаСО3*MgCO3 - dolomite etc. which are a part of set of rocks), and in the structure contains the acid rest - fragment СО32- which is object of chemical reduction by terrestrial currents and according to the logic of things as a part of oil there should be the compounds containing oxygen, which are intermediate chemical compounds between СО32- and hydrocarbons. Whether but takes a place it in the Nature?

Really, the oil composition includes variety of the compounds, containing oxygen - "these components of oil are presented by acids R-COOH, phenols ArOH, ketones, aethers RCOOR and lactones, more rare anhydrides and furan compounds and their total maintenance makes 5-10 % [14].

It speaks well for that idea, that a primogenitor of oil is oxygen containing compounds of carbon what carbonates are.
It is known, that oil in English is called stone oil. One more name of oil in English - petroleum. From the geological dictionary it is possible to find, that petro means a stone, and oleum - oil. Again we have come to stone and oil! Why people named this oil stony, but not iron, aluminium, wooden, earthen? Why these names - a stone and oil - are inseparable?

One is indisputable - if your surname, for example, Johnson, in the beginning of your family there was a person with a name John! And it is similar - if the material is called "Stone oil" in an origin of this "oil", "stone" also has the main value.

In Turkmenistan there is a city of Balkanabat which bore earlier name "Nebitdag". In Turkmen, "nebit" means "oil" and "dag" - "mountain" and a cumulative translation into English means "Mountainoil". But mountain, as a rule are stones and again we are at inseparably of "stone" and "oil". Can be this all accidents? We must clear point out - in the Nature accident does not happen!
Shale concerns to terrigene rocks, as sown in picture 3 - it is simply a stone (Pic.3).


Picture 3.
Shale


Picture 4.
Combustible shale

Simple visual comparison of these two slates in above pictures shows, that in the combustible of them many organic carbon which was formed from inorganic carbon - it is in structure of inorganic carbonates. However, are there inoranic carbonates in structure of combustible shale?
Let's pay attention to the information:
"Combustible slate consists of minerals with prevalence minerals (calcite - СаСО3 , dolomite СаСО3*MgCO3), … and an organic part - last makes 10-30 % from weight of breed and only in slates of the highest quality reaches 50-70 %"
[15]. The obvious neighbourhood of inorganic and organic carbon is here found out too.

Let's finish etymology (linguistics part studying an origin of words) of word "oil" by words of great Russian chemist D.I.Mendeleev: "Major circumstance is positions of oil districts near mountain ranges" [5, p.239].

In acknowledgement and in a substantiation absolutely true notes of the great scientist can be added the following: the structure practically all rocks includes carbonates. Mountains are, basically, product of volcanic activity which with a passing of huge time intervals has calmed down. Now echoes of this, already the calmed down activity, are shown in mountain areas in the form of hot sources of water - geysers, mud volcanoes or there are even active volcanoes. In other words in mountains or about them are available both petroforming minerals, and a stream of heat from Terrestrial bowels which also is the reason of an electric stream which performs the basic work of petro formation. However it at all does not mean, that out of mountains there can not be an oil! Combustible minerals will be and are there, where are present carbonate minerals (and they can be in the under of the Earth!) and a stream of heat and accordingly an electricity from Terrestrial bowels!

One more example. It is known, that "… Norway is the second in the world net-exporter of gas and takes the sixth place in the world on oil export" [16]. Norway with world's reserves of hydrocarbons is near to Iceland, another named "the Country of geysers and volcanoes". It is natural, that the neighbourhood of places of huge streams of heat from Terrestrial bowels and abundance of hydrocarbons also not the casual geographical phenomenon. Such examples it is possible to result much - practically all large deposits of hydrocarbons are located on breaks of geological tectonic plates.
It is possible to present the processes described above by the equations (6-10) in a cyclic (reversible) form, as shown in picture 5.

As this cycle describes formation and use of all usual combustible minerals and whereas they make a basis practically all (about 90 %) the power used by mankind it is logical to name it "the Global power cycle".

6. A global power cycle


Picture 5.
Letters n and m in indexes and factors have identical values. It is natural to believe, that factors n and m are functions from the parametres characterising conditions of an occurring of processes.
So, expressing formation of oil, gas, coal and other combustible minerals in the form of the above-stated picture 5, it is shown, that it represents not photosynthetic circulation carbon in the Nature, similarly circulation of water in the Nature.

As water flows in the rivers never-ending thanking circulation of water in the Nature, so stocks of combustible minerals never-ending too thanking nonphotosynthetic circulation carbon in the Nature. More visually it is visible on a well example - thanking circulation of water in the Nature, water in a well never-ending too. It is clear, that at intensive pumping out of water from a well it can temporarily end, but through certain time it will appear again. In this connection, in view of more presentation endlessness of usual combustible minerals it would be desirable to name as "A well or river Principle".

(Here it is necessary to note especially the essential moment concerning area of thermodynamics - IF ANY PROCESS IS REVERSIBLE, IT IS ETERNAL. As in the nature there is nothing eternal arises thoroughly to work over concept "eternity" - what sense is put in this concept. NOT CLEARLY, WHY THE PHYSICS, BEING "THE SCIENCE ABOUT THE NATURE", INVESTIGATES AND IN GENERAL CONSIDERS THAT WHAT IN THE NATURE IS NOT PRESENT? FOR EXAMPLE, THE QUESTION ON "PERPETUUM MOBILE" - IF IS NOT PRESENT ANYTHING ETERNAL, AS FROM POOR ENGINE TO DEMAND ETERNAL WORK?
BUT, APPARENTLY, THE ETERNITY IS, BUT IT RELATIVE!
This theme interesting and to it we will return further. For now we will continue thought on oil).


Presence as a part of oil compounds of the biological nature is quite explainable. Oil components (for example, n-paraffins) and gas (for example, methane) are a nutrient medium for activity of set of microorganisms, thanking their metabolism fodder protein in industrial scale are made which carry the name accordingly paprine [17] (means "protein from paraffin") and gaprine [18] (means "protein from gas") and these facts are so well-known, that there is no sense to refer to the special literature. As a matter of fact, both oil and gas is a nutrient medium for some microorganisms and presence in their composition of the chemical compounds peculiar only for live organisms is quite naturally. Moreover, as inform [19] "… a deep-water congestion of the poured oil in Gulf of Mexico has disappeared contrary to gloomy forecasts of experts. A leading role in it the microorganisms eating oil have play".

According to the logic of things it turns out - not oil is formed from remains of dead organisms, and on the contrary - oil is a nutrient medium for reproduction of live organisms! Paradox!
It is not excluded, that coal also is formed under the above-stated scheme at the big deficiency or for lack of water in an electrorestoration zone.

Thus, the given theory of formation of the oil, which essence consists that oil and other combustible minerals are formed in bowels of the Earth by electrochemical reduction of inorganic carbonates in "organic carbonates", (in another way named combustible minerals) terrestrial currents (thermocurrent), forming by a heat of the centre of the Earth, answers all questions which have been put in introduction. Besides, given theory, on the one hand, explains allocation of oxygen from Terrestrial bowels, and another - absorption of carbonic gas by the Earth, and both these processes are not connected with photosynthetic process.

But whether takes a place allocation of oxygen from the Earth? Yes, this process takes place in the Nature. We will pay attention to the following information. "It is known, that the basic supplier of oxygen in atmosphere is not the vegetation, but world ocean " [20,21]. Quite natural a question - and in ocean it whence arrives?

The matter is that apparently from a picture 5 and from the equations (6-10) above, as a product of reaction of electrochemical reduction of carbonates the hydroxide groups representing the charged chemical particle is formed. It, as well as proton Н+, possesses property to be transferred on a water chain on huge distances thanks to so-called to "relay race reactions" [22] on a drainage cover of the Earth [23,24] under the scheme:
and so on, while hydroxide groups will reach a water surfaces where there will be their discharge to oxygen formation under the known scheme:
and finally oxygen will get to atmosphere, clearly, through water surfaces.
Whether takes a place the fact of absorption of carbonic gas by the Earth? Yes, is available. We will address to the facts.
"Ponds and other small fresh-water reservoirs absorb carbon from atmosphere in much bigger quantities, than it is considered to be. John Downing and his colleagues from University of Iowa have shown it on an example " small farmer ecosystem". They have come to conclusion, that, first, on the cultivated earths USA small ponds absorb at 20-50 times more atoms of carbon, than the trees planted on the same area. And, secondly, in the ratio absorption - the area, ponds considerably overtake the big lakes.
By estimations of scientists, in the world about 300 million natural ponds and lakes, the total area about 4,2 million км2, that twice more resulted before numbers. More than 90 % of these reservoirs the area are less than hectare. According to Downing, the contribution of ponds and lakes in carbon circulation is not less, than at oceans with all their seaweed "
[25].

It is natural, that the carbonic gas dissolved in water also moves in subsoil the Earth on a drainage cover of the Earth and eventually gets to that place, whence it have taken in the form of combustible minerals.
Orientation of hydrocarbonic deposits and earthquakes to borders geological (also named "tectonic") plates, according to positions of the given theory of formation of oil, suggests, that probably earthquakes occur when carrying out of oxygen from an electrorestoration zone is complicated or impossible because of various character of factors - in view of formation of "a rattling mix", representing a mix of oxygen with fuel.

Let's recollect explosion of a balloon with oxygen at casual or careless getting in it oils - is a bomb. Earthquake - in the first is a liberation of energy and to be liberated, it should be formed and collect at first. Secondly - they are deployed on borders of "tectonic plates" where oil and gas deposits are deployed, and also the seismic picture of earthquake and underground nuclear explosion are similar, more logical manage idea of earthquake as is specified in the previous paragraph. But earthquake is a separate global scientific problem and she demands separate research.

Generalising all aforesaid it is possible to ascertain, that the given theory pretends to a theoretical establishment of existence of some before unknown natural phenomena - thermocurrent presence in the Earth because of a heat of its centre, formation of combustible minerals by means of passage of terrestrial currents through carbonates and water. It also explains earlier known natural phenomena, such as receipt of the basic volume of oxygen in atmosphere through oceans, absorption of carbonic gas by the Earth and logically based new point of view on earthquakes.

So, if basically will not fall down warmly the Earth (and it will not fall down - look second article in this site!) - oil, gas, a coal will be always! It is a principle never-ending of power resources of the Earth. It is the basic conclusion from the offered theory. In this connection the concept "not renewed energy sources" to which till now have carried combustible minerals, loses sense as they as shown, are renewed. And, according to the logic of things it turns out, as repeated formation of hydrocarbons and coal will occur basically in the same geographical coordinates where they were formed till now and continue to be formed and today.

Thus earlier unknown natural phenomenon, is revealed that COMBUSTIBLE MINERALS ARE FORMED FROM INORGANIC CARBONATES BY THEIR ELECTROCHEMICAL REDUCTION IN THE "ORGANIC" CARBONATE (COAL) OR ITS HYDROGENOUS COMPOUNDS (OIL, GAS) BY TERRESTRIAL CURRENTS (THERMOCURRENT), FORMING BY THE HEAT OF THE CENTER OF THE EARTH.

Thus, it is possible to consider a hypothesis [25,26] and the theory [27] of formations of oil and all combustible minerals stated earlier by the author completely proved. According to the logic of things it turns out, that the Earth is the natural converter of energy of heat in energy of combustible minerals and simultaneously makes making of oxygen and transfers it through water surfaces of the Earth in atmosphere, being its basic supplier.

Literature

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16. Паприн  http://wikipedia.org/wiki/
17. Reception of fodder fiber from methane and air mixes   http://www.ecoguild.ru
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19. The supplier of oxygen - world ocean. www.astronet.ru   www.okeanavt.ru
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21. Hayretdinov I.A. Introduction in electrogeochemistry. Moscow, "Science", 1980.
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23. Grigoriev S.M. Role of water in Earth crust formation (the Drainage cover of Earth)
24. Ponds absorb carbon. "Neutral Turkmenistan", 04.06.2008, p. 3 referring to the Internet site of "Science News". www.gazeta.ru
25. "About the physical and chemical version of formation of carbonaceous power substances in Earth`s crust". "The science and technics in Turkmenistan", Ashgabat, "Ylym", 2005, № 4, p. 35-43.
26. "About the physical and chemical version of formation of combustible minerals in Earth`s crust". Natural and engineering science, Moscow, "Sputnik +", 2005, № 2, p.166-170.
27. "The electrochemical theory of formation of oil"." Natural and engineering science, Moscow, "Sputnik+ ", 2011, № 2, p.253-255.

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