НАУЧНЫЕ РАБОТЫ SCIENCE WORKS :   :

H.O.Khoshdurdyev
Candidate of Chemical Sciences

"The Nature is simple and not luxuriates
by the excessive reasons of things"
I.Newton

Global power - whence it undertakes
or the new theory of formation of combustible minerals and
a principle of inexhaustible power resources of the Earth
Introduction

Practically all power used by mankind, is necessary on a share of combustible minerals and without them it is difficult to present today's level of a human civilization. Oil among them takes the central place in view of its especially valuable qualities. For some countries it simply vital necessity and appreciably is a state policy basis. Among minerals there is no product which could be compared on the importance to oil. For a year in the world the large quantity of the energy equivalent in power effect to use more 11billion tons of oil is consumed. The basic share of energy sources is necessary on oil, coal and natural gas, components about 87 % of all spent power resources. And oil on which it is necessary more than 1/3 of all world power balance [1] continues to keep the first place. However, despite it, the conceptual scientific base on which it would be possible to construct the theory, oil explaining an origin in Earth crust, it is good consistent with a science, practice and logic now is absent. Therefore working out of the scientific theory for this area of a science is rather actual scientific problem having also the big practical value.

"Knowing how as well as where there is an oil and gas formation and how their migration comes from, it is possible to solve more confidently problems of searches and investigation of oil and gas deposits, an estimation of their stocks and prospects of oil- and gas-bearing fields researching territories" [2].

There are tens of theories, trying to explain formation of oil and their history begins practically with times of the beginning of use mankind of combustible minerals. All known inorganic hypotheses and theories are in detail stated, analyzed and given corresponding estimations of their inconsistency in work [3] and consequently to repeat earlier done work there is no sense. The inconsistency of organic theories is proved in work of professor N.A.Kudryavtsev [4]. And still: besides all other lacks, both organic, and inorganic theories are insolvent in an explanation of the below-mentioned phenomena directly related to the given problem:

1. Fast formation of oil. In the nature rather fast occurrence natural tar-homothetic product, following of crevices of rocks and mountains - mummy (mountain balm) which is formed for 1-2 years (instead of millions geological years is found out!) in rock, usually on rocks where is absent both fossils, and heats (fig. 1).

According to stories of hunters and workers of mountain reserves, medicinal bitumen (mummy) is formed, as they say, literally "on eyes": it appears suddenly - a maximum in 1-2 years in those places where it was not absolutely. In some cases it filters from a rock of mountains, as is shown in a picture (1) or on a rock the black stain which in due course all becomes more dark and more dark starts to be looked through. If this place for the person accessible, this place breaks by means of the corresponding tool or go-off from a fowling piece and rock with medicinal bitumen (mummy) is selected and further it is taken from a stone boiling in water. In a case of its infiltration, naturally, it simply is scratched out and gathers in ware. Visually and to the touch medicinal bitumen (mummy) reminds oil bitumen of a soft consistence.



The Fig. 1
This picture is removed in mountains Koytendag (Turkmenistan) in 2009.
On it infiltration мумие (actually dense crude oil) from rock is visible.

Use medicinal bitumen (mummy) in national medicine totals over 2 thousand years - however the mechanism of its formation is unknown till now.

2. Repeated formation of oil. In a picture a well, in a local dialect named "the Nobel well" which is drilled about 1850 year by the company "Nobel Brothers" on peninsula Cheleken on the Caspian coast (Turkmenistan) is much lower shown.

From this chink all oil available under it in due time has been extorted and further after full operation it have preserved, and a mouth have concreted that from a well the mix of water and oil which polluted environment subsequently began to flow. However, despite all attempts to stop inflow of oil with water, till today from this and others round chinks, oil constantly arrives on a terrestrial surface (fig. 2).

The Fig. 2
This picture was photographed on the Isle of Cheleken and on it the chink drilled roughly in the middle of 19 centuries is visible.
Now, despite preservation and concreting its source, under the big pressure oil leaks outside from it.

About repeated formation of oil the mentioned below information is interesting also: "On a number of oil wells oil stocks began to be restored by unexpected image. One of first such paradoxes has been found out in an oil field in Tersko-Sunzhensky area, nearby to Grozny. The first wells here have been drilled in 1893, in places of natural ingress of oil. In 1895 one of wells from depth of 140 metres has given a grandiose fountain of oil. In 12 days of spouting walls of an oil barn have failed and the oil stream has flooded towers with a number of the located wells. Only after three years the fountain managed to be tamed, then it has run low and from a gushing way of an oil recovery have passed to the pump. To the beginning of Great Patriotic War all wells strongly filled up with water, and some of them have preserved.

After approach of the world extraction have restored, and, to general surprise, almost all highly filled up with water wells have started to give waterless oil! Inexplicably wells have received "the second breath". After even half a century the situation has repeated. To the beginning of the Chechen wars, wells again were highly filled up with water, have essentially decreased them flow rates, and during wars they were not maintained. When extraction has been renewed, flow rates have considerably increased. And the first small chinks of a steel through out of pipeline space again высачивать oil on a terrestrial surface. Supporters of the biogenic theory were in perplexity whereas "inorganic" easily explained this paradox to that in the given place oil has an inorganic origin. Something similar has occurred in one of the world's largest the Romashkinsky oil deposit too, which is developed already more than 60 years. By estimations of the Tatar geologists, from deposit wells it was possible to take 710 million ton of oil. However for today already have extracted almost 3 billion tons of oil here! Classical laws of geology of oil and gas cannot explain the observable facts. Some wells as though pulsed: falling rate was suddenly replaced by their long-term growth. The pulsing rhythm has been noted and at many other things chinks in territory of the former USSR [9].

3. Existence of hydrocarbons in some planets of solar system where there are even no signs of a life. For example, methane СН4 is found out on the Neptune, Pluto, Uranium, Saturn, and on Jupiter except it are found out ethane С2Н6 and even acetylene С2Н2 [6]. By the way, on Jupiter there is also a magnetic field [6] that is an indicator of presence of an electric current in a planet and, as consequence hydrocarbons and what communication between them it will be clear from the text stated more low.

4. Prevailing allocation oil and gas deposits along broken and crumbling earth crust zones, in parallel large to orogenic and volcanic dispositions.

5. A practical constancy of concentration of oxygen and carbonic gas in atmosphere at steadily increasing consumption of combustible minerals and accordingly oxygen at a constancy (or even reduction) a vegetative earth's mantle, inexhaustibility of stocks of combustible minerals and others.
Let's begin with problem statement.

1. Statement of a problem

That any theory in the field of natural sciences - in particular concerning energy and power questions - had chance of existence, it should be not only in the contradiction with fundamental laws of natural sciences and logic, but should be in the full consent with them. One of such laws is the first law of thermodynamics or on another named "the Law of conservation of energy" which sense consists that energy cannot neither be created, nor to destroy - it passes from one kind to another. This position we take as the base on which we will try to construct the theory of formation of oil and further and all other combustible minerals.

So, oil is a power material or in another way comprises energy. If energy naturally there is a question - whence it took this energy from it or, speaking thermodynamics language - what kind of energy has turned to energy of oil? This question will be a general line according to which search of ways of working out of the theory of formation of oil will be spent.

2. The theory of formation of oil

Problem of creation of the new theory of formation of hydrocarbons we will formulate in the form of the decision of a return problem of full burning of hydrocarbons in the presence of oxygen (why so - it will be clear from the further statement).

heir most simple representative is methane - СН4. We will write the chemical equation of its full burning in the presence of oxygen:

On symbols of elements in figures their corresponding degrees of oxidation are specified.
Apparently from the equation (1), reaction corresponding to it is oxidation-reduction - each molecule of methane, giving in aggregate 8 электронов to two molecules of oxygen, turns to one molecule of carbonic gas and two molecules of water. There is a natural question - whether it is impossible to receive initial products of reaction (1) СН4 +2О2, if in a mix of end-products (СО2 + 2Н2О) to transfer 8 electrons?
In other words - whether probably reaction (1) to carry out in the opposite direction?

The origin of chemical processes on the equation (2) means convertibility of the equation (1). It means convertibility of the processes described by these equations that is in the full consent with the Law of the convertibility, being the fundamental law of the Nature and a basic conclusion from the linear disbalance of thermodynamics [5] which bases are developed by the Turkmen scientist, the professor M.Mamedov. There is a second natural question - whether there are experimental data - as the basic criteria of true - concerning electric restoration of carbonate connections to the lowest degrees of oxidation of carbon? Yes - these processes successfully proceed in reactors- electrolytic tanks [6]. Besides, at restoration окиси carbon on the cathode are formed a mix of hydrocarbons - methane, ethane, ethylene - on reaction.

or at restoration of dioxide of formic acid:

And, processes of restoration of chemical substances, including carbon, occur both on constant, and on a variable electric current [7].

So, intermediate conclusions:
1. Both theoretical and experimental base of the offered electrochemical theory of formation of oil strong enough.
2. At electric current carrying out through the oxidized forms of carbon they are restored to less oxidized forms, sometimes completely - to hydrocarbons.
Following conditions are necessary for electric restoration carrying out carbonate connections in electrolytic tanks: - presence of the electric conductivity environment; - electric current presence; - presence of carbonate a material for electric restoration.

If we show, that there are same or close conditions for the above-stated process, as well as in electrolytic tanks in Earth crust it will grant to us is right to admit idea about an origin of similar processes and in Earth`s crust.

Well-known, that the Earth electric conductivity and an electric current in it arises as thanks to influence of a stream of solar plasma (so-called "the Solar wind") on magnitosphere, indignations in which leads to the Terrestrial electricity - to a stream of the charged particles in the Earth - electrons, ions - in the directions corresponding to laws of electromagnetism [8,9], and the possible thermo current directed from very hot centre of the Earth (5 000 °С) [10] on all surface of the Earth.

Presence of constantly existing magnetic field of the Earth [10] - the direct proof of existence of a constant electric current in it. As the thermo current is by the nature a current to constants, that field created by it too should be to constants. If the constant magnetic field of the Earth makes 99 % of all magnetic field of the Earth logically it turns out, that in the Earth the direct current operates basically and it should be caused a heat of the centre of the Earth though classical the geo electrician the reason of Terrestrial currents carries to indignation magnetospheres of the Earth "the Solar wind".

Presence of carbonate materials in the Earth does not cause doubts - in structure practically all rocks limestone, dolomite and other carbonates, as a rule, enter. In the given work all is meant carbonates mineral, and also to some extent oxidized connections of carbon.

So, it is specified in presence in Earth crust of all conditions of electric restoration of carbonates - it electric conductivity, in it the electric current flows and in the same place there is a considerable quantity carbonate minerals.

It is known [3], that the greatest number of oil deposits geysers, mud volcanoes, sources of hot or warm waters are located on borders of tectonic plates which separate from each other the spaces, by the filled liquid magma which external display are volcanoes. In other words, it is sites on a terrestrial surface in which the greatest stream of heat from Terrestrial bowels is found out.

According to principles of linear disbalance of thermodynamics if there is at least one stream in any direction there are all other streams. Us theoretical possibility of a stream of an electricity from the centre of the Earth to its surface in this case interests. Last achievements of the thermodynamic theory, more precisely, a principle of totality of the streams, being one of conclusions of the linear disbalance of thermodynamics which working out as above about it is mentioned, connected with a name of the professor of M. Mamedov, also confirms theoretical possibility of a thermo current.

From these reasons there is clear a reason of a primary arrangement of oil deposits on borders of geological "tectonic" plates - naturally, that with other things being equal where the greatest stream of heat and accordingly an electricity, the is more than oil and gas.

So, the above-stated information leads to such logic conclusion: oil is formed in bowels of the Earth thanking passages through carbonates and water of terrestrial electric currents. In other words, under the influence of the terrestrial electric currents created by a heat of Terrestrial bowels, there is a transition of inorganic carbonates in organic, on another named "combustible minerals".

3.The basic equations formation of hydrocarbon

For the most vivid presentation, we will consider a full cycle of formation, combustion with energy reception on a terrestrial surface and absorption of products of combustion (CO2) the Earth for methane which is the most simple hydrocarbon - on that way which is offered in the given theory:

Let's comment on the equations (1-5).
The equation (1) means, that warmly the Earth which as a matter of fact is a version of energy which it is designated through-E, gives by the ground a stream electrons e - or simply current (whereas energy is taken out from system). Further this stream electrons, having passed through a carbonate of calcium and water (2), restores carbonate carbon and hydrogen of water with methane formation, hydro oxide, oxide of calcium and hydro oxide groups.

Hydro oxide groups are transferred on "go-ahead reactions" through a drainage cover of the Earth and through oceans are taken out on a surface of the Earth in the form of oxygen and water, preliminary being exposed to reaction re-combination, thus electron comes back also in a starting point (3). The formed methane in the form of natural gas is taken out on a surface of the Earth and used as energy (4) and that initial energy E which, as a matter of fact, is warmly the Earth, transformed to a thermo current and further methane in the form of energy of chemical bonds in a methane molecule is thus allocated. Thus also carbonic gas and water are formed. Further the formed water joins in the general water cycle in the nature, and carbonic gas through water tables and a drainage cover of the Earth finally gets to that place in the Earth, whence it have taken in the form of methane. Naturally, thus it will be instantly seized hydro oxide окисью calcium with formation of a carbonate of calcium. And, the equations (1), (2), (3), and also (5) describe the processes occurring in bowels of the Earth, and the process described by the equation (4) occurs on a surface of the Earth.

Thus, our "travel" on the equations (1-5) has led us to the initial equation (1), on the basis it is quite natural to believe, that we deal with cyclic process.

The equations (1-5) give exact material balance that is additional argument in favour of the offered theory.
(1-5) processes described by the equations for methane as from set of variants of processes of formation of combustible minerals, it is possible to represent a special case the below-mentioned equations (6-10) for all combustible minerals:

Thus, it is possible to present the above-stated processes described by the equations (6-10) in the form of cyclic process, as set forth below.
As this cycle describes formation and use of all usual combustible minerals and whereas they make a basis practically all (about 90 %) the power used by mankind it is logical to name it "the Global power cycle".

4. A global power cycle

Letters n and m in indexes and factors have identical values. It is natural to believe, that factors n and m are functions from the parametres characterizing conditions of an origin of process.

Whether but takes a place allocation of oxygen from the Earth?

Yes, this process takes place in the nature. We will pay attention to the following information.

"It is known, that the basic supplier of oxygen in atmosphere is not the vegetation, and world ocean" [12,13]. Quite natural a question - and in ocean it whence arrives? The matter is that apparently from a picture and from the equations above, as a product of reaction of electrorestoration of carbonates the hydroxyl group representing the charged chemical particle is formed. It, as well as proton Н +, possesses property to be transferred on a water chain on huge distances thanks to so-called to "relay-race reactions" [14] on a drainage cover of the Earth [15,16] under the scheme:

and so on, while hydroxyl groups will reach a water table where there will be their discharge to oxygen formation under the known scheme:

and finally oxygen will get to atmosphere, clearly, through water surfaces.

Whether takes a place the fact of absorption of carbonic gas the Earth? Yes, is available. We will address to the facts.

"Ponds and other small fresh-water reservoirs absorb carbon from atmosphere in much bigger quantities, than it is considered to be. John Downing and its colleagues from University of Iowa have shown it on an example small "farmer ecosystem". They have come to conclusion, that, first, on the cultivated earths USA small ponds absorb at 20-50 times more atoms of carbon, than the trees planted on the same area. And, secondly, in the ratio absorption - the area, ponds considerably overtake the big lakes.

By estimations of scientists, in the world about 300 million natural ponds and lakes, the total area about 4,2 million км2, that twice more resulted before numbers. More than 90 % of these reservoirs the area are less than hectare. According to Downing, the contribution of ponds and lakes in carbon circulation is not less, than at oceans with all their seaweed " [17].


It is natural, that the carbonic gas dissolved in water also moves in subsoil the Earth on a drainage cover of the Earth and eventually gets to that place, whence it have taken in the form of combustible minerals.

Thus, carbonic gas and oxygen move in a countercurrent.

Finding hydrocarbonic deposits and earthquakes to borders geological (also named "tectonic") plates, according to positions of the given theory of formation of oil, suggests, that probably earthquakes occur when carrying out of oxygen from an electrorestoration zone is complicated or impossible because of various character of factors - in view of formation of "a rattling mix", representing a mix of oxygen with fuel. It is logical to suppose, that braking of tectonic plates occur thanking these explosions.

Generalising all aforesaid it is possible to ascertain, that the given theory applies for a theoretical establishment of existence of some unknown before natural phenomena - thermocurrent presence in the Earth because of a heat of its centre, formation of combustible minerals by means of passage of terrestrial currents through carbonates and water, and also known before natural phenomena, such as receipt of the basic volume of oxygen in atmosphere through oceans, absorption of carbonic gas by the Earth and the new point of view on earthquakes.

So, if basically will not fall down warmly the Earth and the Sun will shine - oil, gas, a corner will be always! It is the basic conclusion from the offered theory. In this connection the concept "not renewed energy sources" to which till now have carried hydrocarbons, loses sense as they, as shown, renew. And, according to the logic of things it turns out, as repeated formation of hydrocarbons and coal will occur basically in the same geographical co-ordinates where they were formed till now and continue to be formed and today.

Literature

1. Tendencies of world power. www.rcb.ru
2. Gubkin I.M.Doctrine about oil. M, ОНТИ, 1932, p. 361.
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4. Kudryavtsev N.A.Oil is abiogenous. "Priroda", М, "Nauka", 1971, № 3, p. 70-72.
5. Korzinov N.Oil: live and dead. Black gold whence undertook?   blogs.privet.ru
6. Cyril's and Mephody`s Great Encyclopedia. An electronic variant. 2007.
7. Mamedov M. M, Mamedov N.M. Law of convertibility of stationary nonequilibrium processes - the fundamental law of the Nature following from the second beginning of thermodynamics. Natural and engineering science. М, "The companion +", 2008, № 2, p. 18-19.
8. An intensification of electrochemical processes. Moscow, "Science" 1988, p. 149.
9. Shulgin L.P.Electrochemical processes on an alternating current. "Nauka", the Leningrad branch, Leningrad, 1974. s.16-29.
10. Edges A.P. Bases geoelectricians. Leningrad, "Nedra", 1965.
11. Balasanyan S.U. Dynamic geoelectrician. Novosibirsk, "Nauka", 1990.
12. The supplier of oxygen - world ocean. www.astronet.ru   www.okeanavt.ru
13. Oxygen from Terrestrial depths.  www.rust.su
14. Khayretdinov I.A. Introduction in electrogeochemistry. Moscow, "Nauka", 1980.
15. Vernadsky V. I, 1954-1960. The selected compositions, vol. 1-5. М, publishing house AN of the USSR.
16. Grigoriev S.M. Role of water in Earth crust formation (the Drainage cover of Earth crust). М, "Nedra", 1971.
17. Ponds absorb carbon. The newspaper ("Neutral Turkmenistan", 04.06.2008, p. 3) referring to the Internet site of "Science News". www.gazeta.ru
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